Survey of London (1633): Rivers and Waters

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Of Ancient and present Rivers, Brooks, Boorns, Pooles,
Wels, and Conduits of fresh Water, serving the Citie, as also
of the Ditch compassing the Wall of the same,
for Defence thereof.
ANciently, untill the
Conquerours time,
and two hundred
yeeres after, the Ci
tie of London was
watred (besides the
famous River of
Thames
on the south
part) with the River of Wels, as it was
then called: on the west, with water
called Walbrooke, running thorow the
midst of the Citie into the River of
Thames
, serving the heart thereof: and
with a fourth water or Boorne, which
ranne within the Citie, through Lang
boorne
Ward
, watring that part in the
East. In the West Suburbs was also
another great water, called Oldborne,
which had his fall into the
River of the Wels.
Then were there three principall
fountains or wels in the other Suburbs;
to wit, Holy-Well, Clements Well, and
Clarkes Well. Neere unto this last na
med Fountaine, were divers other wels;
to wit, Skinners Well, Fags Well, Tode
Well
, Loders Well, and Radwell. All which
said Wels having the fall of their over
flowing into the foresaid River, much
increased the streame, and in that place,
gave it the name of Well. In west Smith
field
there was a Poole, in Records cal
led Horsepoole, and another neere unto
the parish Church of S. Giles without
Creplegate
. Besides all which, they had
in every street and lane of the Citie, di
vers faire Wels, and fresh Springs: and
after this manner was this Citie then
served with sweet and fresh waters,
which being since decayed, other means
have beene sought to supply the want;
as shall be shewed: but first of the a
fore-named Rivers and other waters, is
to be said as followeth:

Rivers and other Waters serving this Citie.
Thames, the most famous River of
this Iland, beginneth a little above a
Village called Winchcomb in Oxfordshire,
and still increasing, passeth first by the
Vniversity of Oxford, and so (with a mar
vellous quiet course) to London, and
thence breaketh into the French Ocean
by maine tides, which twise in twenty
foure houres doth ebbe and flow, more
than threescore miles in lenght, to the
great commodity of Travailours, by
which all kinde of Merchandises are ea
sily conveyed to London, the principall
Storehouse, and Staple of all commodi
ties within this Realme. So that, omit
ting to speake of great ships, and other
vessels of burthen, there appertaineth to
the Citie of London, Westminster, and the
Burrough of Southwarke, above the
number (as is supposed) of two thousand
Wherries,
Wherries on the Thames.
and other small Boats, wher
by three thousand poore men (at least)
be set on worke, and maintained.
That the River of Wels in the West
part of the Citie, was of old so called
of the VVels, it may bee proved thus:
William the Conquerour, in his Char
ter to the Colledge of Saint Martin le
grand
in London, hath these words: I
doe give and grant to the same Church, all
the land and the Moore without the
Po
sterne which is called Creplegate, on ey
ther part of the
Posterne: that is to say,
from the North corner of the Wall (as the
River of the Wels
, there neere running,
departeth the same Moore from the Wall)
unto the running water which entreth the
Citie
. This water hath beene long since
called, the River of the Wels; which
name of River continued, and it was so
called in the Reigne of Edward the first:
as shall be shewed, with the decay also
of the said River.
In a faire book of Parliament records,
Decay of the Ri
ver of the Wels
.
now lately restored to the Tower, it
appeareth
,
Parliament Record.
that a Parliament being
holden at
Carlile, in the yeere 1307. the
35. of Edw. the first, Henry Lacy, Earle
of
Lincolne, complained, that whereas (in
times past) the course of water, running at
London under Oldborne-bridge, and
Fleet-bridge into the Thames, had beene
of such bredth and depth, that ten or twelve
Ships,
River of Wels bare Ships.
Navies at once with Merchandises,
were wont to come to the foresaid Bridge of
Fleet
, and some of them unto Oldborne-bridge:
Now the same course (by filth of
the Tanners, and such others) was sore
decayed; also by raising of Wharfes, but e
specially, by a diversion of the water, made
by them of the New Temple, for their
Milles standing without Baynards Ca
stle
,
Patent Record.
in the first yeere of King Iohn,
Milles by Baynards Castle, made in the first of K. Iohn.
and by
divers others impediments, so as the said
Ships could not enter as they were wont,
and as they ought. Wherefore hee desired,
that the Maior of London, with the Shi
riffes, and other discreet Aldermen, might
be appointed to view the said course of the
said water, and that by the oathes of good
men, all the foresaid hindrances might bee
removed, and it to be made as it was wont
of old. Whereupon Roger le Barbason,
the Constable of the Tower, with the Maior
and Shiriffes, were assigned to take with
them honest and discreet men, and to make
diligent search and enquirie, how the said
River was in former time, and that they
leave nothing that may hurt or stoppe it,
River so called in the yeere 1307.

but keepe it in the same estate that it was
wont to be. So farre the Record.
Whereupon it followed, that the
said River was at that time cleansed,
these Milles removed, and other things
done for the preservation of the course
therof: notwithstanding never brought
to the old depth and bredth: wherupon
the name of River ceased, and it was
since called a Brooke; namely, Turne
mill
or Tremill Brooke, for that divers
Milles were erected upon it, as appea
reth by a faire Register Booke, contai
ning the foundation of the Priorie at
Clarken-well
, and donation of the lands
thereunto belonging, as also by divers
other Records.
This Brooke hath beene divers times
since cleansed, namely, and last of
all to any effect, in the yeere one thou
ſand five hundred and two
, the seven
teenth of Henry the Seventh
, the whole
course of Fleet-Dike, then so called,
was scowred (I say) downe unto the
Thames, so that Boats with Fish and
Fewell were rowed to Fleet-bridge and
Oldborne-bridge, as they of old time
had beene accustomed, which was a
great commodity to all the inhabitants
in that part of the Citie.
In the yeere 1589. was granted a fif
teen by a common Councel of the City,
for

Rivers and other Waters serving this Citie.

for the clensing of this Brooke or Dike:
Fleet-Dike promised to be clen
sed, the mony col
lected, and the Citi
zens de
ceived.
the money amounting to a thousand
marks, was collected, and it was under
taken, that by drawing divers Springs
about Hampsted Heath into one head
and course, both the Citie should bee
served of fresh water in all places of
want, and also, that by such a follower,
(as men call it) the channell of this
Brooke should be scowred into the Ri
ver of Thames
. But much money being
therein spent, the effect failed; so that
the Brooke, by meanes of continuall in
crochments upon the banks, getting o
ver the water, and casting of soylage in
to the streame, is now become worse
cloyed than ever it was before.
The running water, so called by Willi
am Conqueror
in his said Charter, which
entreth the Citie, &c. (before there
was any ditch) betweene Bishopsgate and
the late-made Posterne called Mooregate,
entred the wall, and was truely of the
wall called Walbrooke, not of Gualo, as
some have farre fetched. It ran through
the Citie, with divers windings from
the North towards the South, into the
River of Thames; and had (over the
same) divers Bridges along the streets
and lanes through which it passed. I
have read in an old Booke, long since
printed, that the Prior of holy Trinity
within Ealdgate, ought to make over
Walbrooke in the VVard of Broadstreet,1 a
gainst the stone wall of the Citie, viz.
the same bridge that is next the Church
of All Saints at the VVall
. Also, that
the Prior of the New Hospitall, S. Mary
Spittle
, without Bishopsgate, ought to
make the middle part of one other
Bridge next to the said Bridge towards
the North: and that in the 28. yeere
of Edward the first
, it was by Inquisition
found before the Mayor of London, that
the Parish of S. Stephen upon Walbrooke,
ought of right to scowre the course of
the said Brooke; and therefore the Shi
riffes were commanded to distraine the
said Parishioners so to do. In the yeere
1300. the keepers of those bridges at
that time, were William Iordan, and Iohn
de Bever
. This water-course having di
vers Bridges, was afterwards vaulted
over with Bricke,
Walbrooke vaulted and paved over.
and paved levell with
the streets and lanes, where-through it
passed; and since that also, houses have
been builded thereon, so that the course
of Walbrooke is now hid under ground,
and thereby hardly knowne.
Langborne water2 3
Langborne.
so called of the
length thereof, was a great streame
breaking out of the ground in Fen Church
street
, which ranne downe with a swift
course, west, through the street, thwart
Grastreet, and downe Lumbard street, to
the west end of Saint Mary Wolnoths
Church
, and then turning the course
South, downe Shareborne Lane (so ter
med of sharing or dividing) it brake in
to divers rilles or rillets to the River of
Thames
. Of this Boorne that VVard
tooke the name, and is to this day called
Langborne VVard. This Boorne is also
long since stopped up at the head, and
the rest of the course filled up, and pa
ved over, so that no signe thereof re
maineth, more than the names afore
said.
Oldborne or Hilborne, was the like wa
ter, breaking out about the place where
now the Barres doe stand, and it ranne
downe the whole street to Oldborne
bridge
, and into the River of the Wels, or
Turne-mill brooke. This Boorne was like
wise (long since) stopped up at the
head, and in other places, where the
same hath broken out: but yet till this
day, the said street is there called, high
Oldborne hill, and both the sides there
of, (together with all the grounds ad
joyning, that lye betwixt it and the Ri
ver of Thames
) remaine full of Springs,
so that water is there found at hand, and
hard to be stopped in every house.
There are (saith Fitzstephen) neere Lon
don
, on the North side, speciall Wels in the
suburbs, sweet, wholsome and cleere, among
which, Holy VVell, Clarkes VVell, and
Clements VVell, are most famous, and
frequented by schollers and youths of the Ci
tie in summer evenings, when they walke
forth to take the Ayre.
The first, to wit, Holy Well, is much
decayed and spoiled, with filthines pur
posely laid there, for the heightning of
the ground for Garden plots.
The Fountaine called Saint Clements
Well
, North from the Parish Church of
S. Clements
, and neere unto an Inne of
Chancerie, called Clements Inne, is faire
curbed square with hard stone, cleane
for common use, and is alwaies full.
The

Rivers and other Waters serving this Citie.

The third is called Clarkes Well, or
Clarken-Well, and is curbed about square
with hard stone: not farre from the
west end of Clarken-well Church, but
close without the VVall that incloseth
it. The said Church the tooke name of
the Well; and the Well tooke name
of the Parish Clarkes in London, who (of
old time) were accustomed there yeere
ly to assemble, and to play some large
Historie of holy Scripture. For exam
ple, of later time, to wit, in the yeere
1390. the 14. of Richard the second, I
read,
Playes by the Parish Clarks at Clarks Well.
that the Parish Clarkes of London,
on the 18. of Iuly, plaid Enterludes at
Skinners Well, neere unto Clarkes Well,
which Play continued three dayes toge
ther, the King, Queene, and Nobles be
ing present. Also the yeere 1409. the
tenth of Henry the fourth, they played
a Play at the Skinners Well,
Playes at the Skin
ners well
.
which lasted
eight dayes, and was of matter from
the Creation of the world: there were
to see the same, the most part of the
Nobles and Gentiles in England, &c.
Other smaller Wels were many
neere unto Clarkes well; namely Skinners
well
, so called, for that the Skinners of
London held there certain Playes, yeere
ly plaid of holy Scripture, &c. In place
whereof,
Wrestling place.
the wrestlings have of latter
yeeres beene kept, and is in part conti
nued at Bartholomewtide.
Then was there Fags well, neere unto
Smithfield, by the Charter-house, now
lately dammed up. Todwell, Loders well,
and Radwell are all decayed, and so fil
led up, that their places are hardly now
discerned.
Somewhat North from Holy well, is
one other Well, curbed square with
stone, and is called Dame Annis the cleere;
and not farre from it, but somewhat
west, is also another cleere water, called
Perilous Pond, because divers Youths (by
swimming therein) have beene drow
ned. And thus much be said for Foun
taines and Wels.
Horsepoole in Westsmithfield, was some
time a great water; and because the in
habitants in that part of the Citie did
there water their Horses, the same was
in old Records called Horsepoole. It is
now much decayed, the Springs being
stopped up, and the Land-water fal
ling into the small bottome, remaining
inclosed with Bricke, is called Smith-field
Pond
.
By S. Giles Churchyard was a large
water,
Poole without Creplegate.
called a Poole: I reade in the
yeere 1244. that Anne of Lodbury was
drowned therein. This Poole is now
(for the most part) stopped up; but the
Spring is preserved, and was cooped a
bout with stone, by the Executors of
Richard Whittington.
The said River of Wels, the running
water of Walbrooke, the Boornes afore
named, and other the fresh waters that
were in and about this Citie, being in
processe of time, by incroachment for
buildings, and heightnings of grounds,
utterly decayed, and the number of Ci
tizens mightily increased; they were
forced to seeke fresh waters abroad;
whereof some, at the request of King
Henrie the third
, in the 21. yeere of his
reigne
,
Patent, 1236.
were (for the profit of the Citie,
and good of the whole Realme thither
repairing; to wit, for the poore to
drink, and the rich to dresse their meat)
granted to the Citizens,
Water conveyed from Tey
borne
.
and their Suc
cessors, by one Gilbert Sanford, with li
berty to convey water from the Towne
of Teyborne
, by pipes of lead into their
Citie.
The first Cisterne of lead, castellated
with stone in the Citie of London, was
called the Great Conduit in west Cheap,
which was begun to be builded in the
yeere 1285. Henry Wales being then
Maior:
Water coēveyed frō Teyborne to London.
the water-course from Pading
ton
to Iames hed, hath 510. rods; from
Iames hed on the hill, to the Mewsgate
102. rods; from the Mewsgate to the
Crosse in Cheape, 484. rods.
The Tonne upon Cornhill was cister
nated in the yeere 1401.
Tonne up
on Cornhill.
Iohn Sandworth
then being Maior.
Bosses of water at Belinsgate,
Bosse of Belinsgate, and other Bosses.
by Pauls
wharfe
, and by S. Giles Church without
Creplegate
, made about the yeere 1423.
Water conveyed to the Gaoles of
Newgate and Ludgate, 1432.
Water was first procured to the
Standard in west Cheap, about the yeere
1285. which Standard was againe
new builded by the Executors of Iohn
Welles
, as shall bee shewed in another
place.
King Henry the sixth, in the yeere
1442. granted to Iohn Hatherley, Maior,
licence

Rivers and other Waters serving this Citie.

licence to take up 200. fodar of Lead,
for the building of Conduits, of a com
mon Granery, and of a com
mon Granery, and of a new Crosse in
west Cheape, for the honour of the Ci
tie.
The Conduit in west Cheap, by Pauls
gate, (commonly called, The little Con
duit
) was builded about the yeere 1442.
one thousand markes was granted by
common Councell for the building
thereof, and repairing of the other Con
duits.
The Conduit in Aldermanbury, and
the Standard in Fleetstreet, were made
and finished by the Executors of Sir
William Eastfield
, in the yeere 1471. A
Cisterne also was added to the Stan
dard in Fleetstreet
, and a Cisterne was
made at Fleet bridge, and another with
out Creplegate, in the yeere 1478.
Conduit in Grastreet, in the yeere
1491.
Conduit at Oldborne Crosse, about
1498. againe new made by Mr. William
Lambe
, 1577.
Conduit at Ealdgate without, about
1535.
Conduit in Lothbury, and in Coleman
street
, 4 neere to the Church, 1546.
Thames water conveyed into mens
houses by pipes of Lead,
Thames wa
ter con
veyed into mens hou
ses in the east part of the Ci
ty.
from a most
artificiall Forcier standing neere unto
London Bridge, and made by Peter Mor
bis
, Dutchman, in the yeere 1582. for
the service of the Citie on the East part
thereof.
Conduits of Thames water by the pa
rish Churches of S. Mary Magdalen,
Conduits in old Fish
street
.
and S. Nicholas cole-Abbey, neere unto
old Fishstreet, in the yeere 1583.
One other new Forcier was made
neere to Broken Wharfe,
Thames water con
veyed into the west part of the Citie.
to convey
Thames water into mens houses of west
Cheape
, about Pauls, Fleetstreet, &c. by
an English Gentleman, named Bevis
Bulmer
, in the yeere 1594.
Another Conduit was also built at
Aldersgate, without the Gate, in Anno
1610. and Thames water conveyed unto
it in pipes of wood and stone, by an En
glish
Gentleman, named Mr. Thomas
Hayes
.
Next to the Conduit water thus con
veyed to Aldersgate, and as you have al
ready heard; that famous (and never to
be forgotten) new River, brought from
Chadwell and Amwell,5 by the onely care,
cost, and liberall expences of one wor
thy man, Master Hugh Middleton, Citizen and Goldsmith
of London, deserveth to be recorded in
everlasting memory.
I spare here to speake of the length of
time that such an intent was in talking
on, like much good matter, well motio
ned, though little minded; long deba
ted, but never concluded, till courage
and resolution lovingly shooke hands
together, as it appeares it did in the
Soule of this (no way to bee daunted)
well-minded Gentleman.
For,
Malignant enemies to all ho
nest and commen
dable acti
ons.
if those enemies to all good en
devours, Danger, Difficulty, Impossibili
ty, Detraction, Contempt, Scorne, Derisi
on
,
yea, and Desperate Despight, could
have prevailed by their accursed and
malevolent interposition, either before,
at the beginning, in the very birth of
proceeding, or in the least stolne advan
tage of the whole prosecution; this
Worke of so great worth had never bin
accomplished.
I am not ignorant of an Act of Parlia
ment,
In or a
bout the 10. yeere of her reigne.
granted by Queene Elizabeth of
blessed memory, to her Citizens of Lon
don
, for cutting and conveying a River
from any part of Middlesex or Hertford
shire
, to the Citie of London, with a li
mitation of ten yeeres time for the per
formance thereof: But the expiration
of her Royall life sooner came, than any
such matter would be undertaken.
Also our late gracious Soveraigne
King Iames pleased to grant the like
Act (but without date of time) for the
same effect: and when all else refused,
Master Middleton undertook it, to bring
his intended River from Chadwell and
Amwell, to the North side of London,
neere Islington, where he builded a large
Cisterne to receive it.
The Worke began the 20. day of Fe
bruary
,
VVhen the River began at the first, and fini
shed in 5. yeeres.
Anno Dom. 1608. and in five
yeers space was fully accomplished: con
cerning the conveyance of it along to
Rivers and other Waters serving this Citie.
London, from Chadwell and Amwell, I
my selfe (by favour of the Gentlemen)
did divers times ride to see it, and dili
gently observed, that admirable Art,
paines and industry were bestowed for
the passage of it, by reason that all
grounds are not of a like nature, some
being ozie and very muddy, others a
gaine as stiffe, craggy and stony.
The depth of the Trench (in some
places) descended full thirty foot,
The inge
nious con
veying of the River in some places.
if not
more; whereas (in other places) it re
quired as sprightfull Art againe, to
mount it over a valley in a Trough, be
tweene a couple of hils, and the Trough
all the while borne up by woodden Ar
ches, some of them fixed in the ground
very deepe, and rising in heighth above
23. foot.
Being brought to the intended Ci
sterne,
The Lord Maior and Aldermen rode to see the Ci
sterne.
but not (as yet) the water ad
mitted entrance thereinto: on Michael-masse
day, in Anno 1613. being the day
when Sir Thomas Middleton, Knight,
(Brother to the said Sir Hugh Middle
ton
) was elected Lord of London
for the yeere ensuing; in the afternoone
of the same day, Sir Iohn Swinerton,
Knight, and Lord Maior of London, ac
companied with the said Sir Thomas,
Sir Henry Montague, Knight, and Re
corder of London, and many of the wor
thy Aldermen, rode to see the Cisterne,
and first issuing of the River thereinto:
which was performed in this manner:
A troope of Labourers,
The work
men in the Ci
sterne.
to the number
of 60. or more, well apparelled, and
wearing greene Monmouth Caps, all a
like, carryed Spades, Shovels, Pickaxes,
and such like instruments of laborious
imployment, marching after Drummes
twice or thrice about the Cisterne, pre
sented themselves before the Mount,
where the Lord Maior, Aldermen, and
a worthy company beside, stood to be
hold them, and one man (in behalfe of
all the rest) delivered this Speech.
The Speech at the Cisterne, according
as it was delivered to me.
LOng have we labour’d, long desird & pray’d
For this great works perfection: & by th’ayd
Of Heaven, and good mens wishes, ’tis at length
Happily conquer’d by Cost, Art, and Strength.
And after five yeeres deare expence in dayes,
Travaile and paines, beside the infinite Wayes
Of Malice, envie, false suggestions;
Able to daunt the spirits of mighty ones
In wealth and courage: This, a worke so rare,
Onely by one mans industry, cost and care,
Is brought to blest effect, so much withstood;
His onely ayme, the Cities generall good.
And where (before) many unjust complaints,
Enviously seated, caus’d oft restraints,
Stops, and great crosses, to our Masters charge,
And the Works hindrance: favour now at large
Spread it selfe open to him, and commends
To admiration both his paines and ends.
(The Kings most gracious love) Perfectiō draws
Favour from Princes, and (from all) applause.
Then worthy Magistrates, to whose content,
(Next to the State) all this great care was bent,
And for the publike good (which grace requires)
Your loves and furtherance chiefly he desires,
To cherish these proceedings, which may give
Courage to some that may hereafter live,
To practise deedes of Goodnesse, and of Fame,
And gladly light their Actions by his Name.
Clarke of the Worke, reach me the Booke to show,
How many Arts from such is Labour flow.
First, heres the Overseer,
All this he readeth in the Clarks Booke.
this tride man,
An ancient Souldier, and an Artizan.
The Clarke, next him Mathematician,
The Master of the rimber-worke takes place
Next after these; the Measurer, in like case,
Brick-layer, and Enginer; and after those;
The Borer and the Pavier. Then it showes
The Labourers next; Keeper of Amwell-head,
The VValkers last: so all their names are read.
Yet these but parcels of six hundred more,
That (at one time) have beene imployd before.
Yet these in sight, and all the rest will say,
That all the weeke they had their Royall pay.
Now,
At the let
ting open of the Sluce.
for the fruits then: Flow forth; precious Spring,
So long and dearely sought for, and now bring
Comfort to all that love thee: loudly sing,
And with thy Chrystal murmurs strook together,
Bid all thy true wel-wishers welcome hither.
At which words the Flood-gates flew
open, the streame ranne gallantly into
the Cisterne, Drummes and Trumpets
sounding in triumphall manner, and
a brave Peale of Chambers gave full
issue to the intended entertainment.
Thus much for waters serving this
Citie; first by Rivers, Brookes, Boorns,
Fountaines, Pooles, &c. And since by
Conduits, partly made by good and
charitable Citizens, and otherwise by
charges of the Communalty, as shall
bee more amply shewed in our descrip
tion of the Wards wherein they are
placed.
C
And


And now some Benefactors to these
Conduits shall be remembred.
Benefa
ctors to
wards the Water-Conduits.
In the yeere 1236. certain Merchant
strangers, of Cities beyond the Seas, to
wit, of Amiens, Corby, and Nele, for pri
viledges which they enjoyed in this Ci
tie, gave 100 l. towards the charges of
conveying water from the
Towne of Teyborne.
Robert Large, Mayor, 1439. gave to
the new water Conduits then in hand,
40. Markes; and towards the vaulting
over of Walbrooke, neere to the parish
Church of S. Margarets in Lothbury
,
200. Markes.
Sir William Eastfield, Maior, 1438.
conveyed water from Teyborne to Fleet
street
, to Aldermanbury, and from High
tory
to Creplegate.
William Combes, Sheriffe, 1441. gave
to the worke of the Conduits. 10. l.
Richard Rawson, one of the Sheriffes,
1476. gave 20. l.
Robert Revel, one of the Sheriffes,
1490. gave 10. l.
Iohn Mathew, Maior, 1490. gave
20. l.
William Bucke, Taylor, in the yeere
1494. towards repairing of Conduits,
gave 100. Marks.
Dame Thomasin widdow, late wife to
Sir Iohn Percivall, Merchant Taylor,
Maior, in the yeere 1498. gave toward
the Conduit in Oldborne, 20. Marks.
Richard Shore, one of the Sheriffes,
1505. gave to the Conduit in Oldborne,
10. l.
The Lady Ascue, widdow to Sir Chri
stopher Ascue
, 1543. gave towards the
Conduits, 100. l.
David Woodroofe, Sheriffe, 1554. gave
toward the Conduit at Bishopsgate, 20. l.
Edward Iackman, one of the Sheriffes,
1564. gave towards the Conduits,
100. l.
Barnard Randulph, common Serjeant
of the Citie, 1583. gave to the water
Conduits, 900. l.
Thus much for the Conduits of fresh
water to this Citie.

Notes

  1. In the 1598 Survey, Stow writes Bredstreet. (ML)
  2. Weinreb’s The London Encyclopaedia states that there is no evidence for this stream (Weinreb, Langbourne). (CD)
  3. Harben addresses Stow’s description of the stream here, calling his inference of the name purely mythical and stating that there is no reason to suppose that there was ever a brook or stream running in this direction in this part of the City (Harben, Langbourne [The]). (JZ)
  4. I.e., the Colemanstreet Conduit. (JZ)
  5. The New River project in 1613 brought fresh water into the city from Amwell Head north of the city. The opening of the project is celebrated in Thomas Middleton’s The Manner of His Lordships Entertainment. (JJ)

References

Cite this page

MLA citation

Stow, John, Anthony Munday, Anthony Munday, and Humphrey Dyson. Survey of London (1633): Rivers and Waters. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 6.6, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 30 Jun. 2021, mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/stow_1633_waters.htm. Draft.

Chicago citation

Stow, John, Anthony Munday, Anthony Munday, and Humphrey Dyson. Survey of London (1633): Rivers and Waters. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 6.6. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed June 30, 2021. mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/stow_1633_waters.htm. Draft.

APA citation

Stow, J., Munday, A., Munday, A., & Dyson, H. 2021. Survey of London (1633): Rivers and Waters. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London (Edition 6.6). Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/editions/6.6/stow_1633_waters.htm. Draft.

RIS file (for RefMan, RefWorks, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

TY  - ELEC
A1  - Stow, John
A1  - Munday, Anthony
A1  - Munday, Anthony
A1  - Dyson, Humphrey
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London (1633): Rivers and Waters
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
ET  - 6.6
PY  - 2021
DA  - 2021/06/30
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/stow_1633_waters.htm
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/xml/standalone/stow_1633_waters.xml
TY  - UNP
ER  - 

TEI citation

<bibl type="mla"><author><name ref="#STOW6"><surname>Stow</surname>, <forename>John</forename></name></author>, <author><name ref="#MUND1"><forename>Anthony</forename> <surname>Munday</surname></name></author>, <author><name ref="#MUND1"><forename>Anthony</forename> <surname>Munday</surname></name></author>, and <author><name ref="#DYSO1"><forename>Humphrey</forename> <surname>Dyson</surname></name></author>. <title level="a">Survey of London (1633): Rivers and Waters</title>. <title level="m">The Map of Early Modern London</title>, Edition <edition>6.6</edition>, edited by <editor><name ref="#JENS1"><forename>Janelle</forename> <surname>Jenstad</surname></name></editor>, <publisher>U of Victoria</publisher>, <date when="2021-06-30">30 Jun. 2021</date>, <ref target="https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/stow_1633_waters.htm">mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/stow_1633_waters.htm</ref>. Draft.</bibl>

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