Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward

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CAndlewicke street, or Candlewright streete ward, beginneth at the East end of great East
it passeth west through Eastcheape to Candlewright streete, and through the same downe to the North end of Suffolke lane, on the south side, and downe that lane by the west ende of S. Laurence churchyarde, and that is the farthest west part of that Warde. The street of great East
is so called of the market there kept, in the East parte of the city, as West cheape is a market so called of being in the west.
This East cheape is now a flesh market of Butchers there dwelling, on both sides of the street, it had sometime also Cookes mixed amongst the Butchers, and such other as sold victuails rea
die dressed of all sorts. For of old time when friends did meet, and were disposed to bee merie, they went not to dine and suppe in Ta
uernes, for they dressed not meates to be sold, but the cookes, where they called for meate what them liked, which they alwayes found readie dressed at a reasonable rate, as I haue before shewed. In the yeare 1410. the 11. of Henry the 4. vpon the euen of S. Iohn Baptist, the kinges sonnes,
The kings sons beaten in Eastcheape, there was no tauerne then in Eastcheape.
Thomas, and Iohn being in East
at supper, (or rather at breakfast, for it was betwixt 2. and 3. of the clocke after midnight) a great debate happened between their men and other of the court, which lasted one houre, euen till the Mayor and Sheriffes with other cittizens appeased the same: for the which afterwards the said Mayor Aldermen and Sheriffes were sent for to answere before the king, his sonnes and diuers Lords, being highly moued against the cittie. At which time William Gascoyne, chiefe Iustice required the Mayor and Al
dermen, for the citizens, to put them in the Kings grace: whereun
to they answered that they had not offended, but (according to the law) had done their best in stinting debate, and maintayning of the peace: vpon which answere the king remitted all his ire, and dismissed them. And to proue this Eastcheape, to be a place reple
nished with cookes, it may appeare by a song called London

licke pennie, made by Lidgate the Monke of Berrye, in the raigne of Henry the fift, in the person of a cuntreyman comming to London, and trauelling through the same: In westcheape
In west cheap linnen cloth sold but no silkes spoken of.
(saith the song) he was called on to buy fine lawne, Paris thread, cotton Umple, and other linnen clothes and such like (he speaketh of no silkes) In Cornehill to buy olde apparel, and houshold stuffe, where he was forced to buy his owne hoode, which hee had lost in West
minster hall
: in Candlewright street Drapers profered him cheap cloth, in Eastcheape the cookes cryed hotte ribbes of beefe rosted, pyes well baked, and other victuailes: there was clattering of pots, harpe, pipe, and sawtry, yea by cocke, nay by cocke, for other greater oathes were spared: some sang of Ienken and Iulian &c. all which melodie liked well the passenger, but he wanted money to abide by it, and therefore gat him into Grauesend barge and home into Kent.
Fripparia. Vpholders vpon Corne
, sellers of old apparel & houshold stuff Eastcheape.
Candlewright or Candlewicke street
Candlewright or Candle
wike street
, wike is a wir
king place.
tooke that name (as may be supposed) eyther of Chaundlers or makers of candles, both of waxe and tallow: for Candlewright is a maker of candles, or of Wéeke which is the cotton or yearne thereof: or o
therwise Wike, which is the place where they vse to work them, as Scalding wike by the stockes market was called of the Powl
ters scalding and dressing their powltry there: and in diuers coun
tries, Dayrie houses or cottages, wherein they make butter and cheese, are vsually called Wickes. There dwelled also of olde time diuers Weauers
Weauers in Candlewike street.
of woollen clothes, brought in by Edward the third. For I reade that in the 44. of his raigne the weauers brought out of Flaunders,
Weauers brought out of Flanders and Brabant.
were appointed their meetings to be in the churchyarde of S. Laurence Poultney, and the Weauers of Brabant in the churchyard of S. Mary Sommerset. There were then in this cittie weauers of diuers sortes. to wit, of Drapery, of Tapery, & Naperie. These weauers of Candlewright stréet be
ing in short time worne out, their place is now possessed by rich Drapers sellers of woollen cloth, &c. On the North side of this warde, at the west end of East cheape haue ye S. Clements lane, a part whereof on both sides is of Candlewike stréet ward, to wit somewhat North beyond the parish church of S. Clement in East cheape. This is a small church, void of monuments, other then of Frauncis Barnam Alderman, who deceased 1575. and of Bene

Barnam his son, Alderman also 1598. Next is S. Nicholas lane for the most part on both sides of this ward, almost to S. Ni
. Then is Abchurch lane, which is on both the sides, almost wholly of this ward, ye parish church there (called of S. Ma
, Apechurch, or Upchurch, as I haue read it) standeth somewhat neere vnto the south ende thereof, on a rising ground: it is a faire church, and hath the monuments of Iohn Long Es
quire of Bedfordshire 1442. Iohn Wikenson Alderman 1519. William Iawdrell Taylor, 1440. Sir Iames Hawse Mayor, 1574. Sir Iohn Branch Mayor, 1580. Iohn Miners, Willi
am Kettle
&c. On the South side of this warde, beginning againe at the East, is S. Nicholas lane which lane, is almost wholly of this ward, on both sides downe towards Thamestréete, to a wel or pump there, On the East side of this lane is crooked lane afore
said by S. Michæls church, towards new fishstréet. One the most ancient house in this lane is called the leaden porch, and belonged somtime to Sir Iohn Merston knight: the 1. of Edward the 4. The parish church of this S. Michæls was somtime but a smal & homely thing, standing vpon part of that ground, wherein now standeth the parsonage house: and the ground there about was a filthy plot, by reason of the butchers in East chepe, who made the same their Laystall. Iohn Loueken stockfishmonger Maior buil
ded in the same ground this faire church of S. Michæll and was there buried in the quire, vnder a faire tombe with the Images of him, and his wife in Alabaster: the said church hath béen since in
creased with a new quire and side chaples by Sir William Wal
stockfishmonger Mayor, somtime seruant to the foresaid Iohn Loueken, also the tombe of Loueken was remoued and a flat stone of grey marble garnished with plates of copper layde on him as it yet remaineth in the body of the church: this William Walworth is reported to haue slaine Iack Straw in Smithfield, and there to haue béen therefore knighted by the king, but that is not trew, forIack Strawe being afterward taken, was first ad
iudged by the said mayor, and then executed by the losse of his head in Smithfield, howbeit true it is that this William Walworth
Praise of Wil
iam Wal
for his manhood in aresting of Wat Tylar.
ing a man wise, learned, and of an incomparable manhood arrested Watt Tiler a presumptuous rebell, vpon whom no man durst lay

whereby hee deliuered the King and kingdome from most wicked tiranie of Traitors. The Mayor
The Mayor was well ar
med, and had on his head a Basonet.
arrested him on the head with a sound blow, whereupon Wat Tylar furiously stroke the Mayor with his dagger, but hurt him not, by reason he was well armed: the Mayor hauing receyued his stroke, drew his basiliarde, and grieuously wounded Wat in the neck, and withal gaue him a great blow on the head: in the which conflict an Esquire of the kinges house, called Iohn Cauendish drew his sword, and wounded Wat twise or thrise euen to the death: and Wat spurring his horse, cried to the commons to reuenge him: the horse bare him about 80. foot from the place, and there he fell downe halfe dead, and by and by they which attended on the king enuironed him about, so as hee was not seene of his company: many of them thrust him in in di
uers places of his bodie, and drew him into the Hospitall of S. Bar
, from whence againe the Mayor caused him to bee drawne into Smithfield, and there to be beheaded. In rewarde of this seruice, (the people being dispersed) the king commanded the Mayor to put a Basenet on his head, and the Mayor requesting why he should so do, the king answered, he being much bound vn
to him would make him knight: the Mayor
Mayor made knight and otherwise re
answered, that hee was neither worthy nor able to take such estate vpon him, for hee was but a Marchant & had to liue by his marchandise onely: not
withstanding the king made him to put on his Basenet,
Order of ma
king a knight for seruice in the field.
and then with a sword in both his hands he strongly strake him on the neck as the manner was then, and the same day hee made thrée other citizens knights, for his sake in the same place: to wit, Iohn Phil
, Nicholas Brembar, and Robert Launde Alderman.
Aldermen knighted. Colledge s
The king gaue to the Mayor 100.£. land by yere, & to each of the other 40.£. land yearely, to them and their heires for euer.
After this in the same yeare the said Sir William Walworth founded in the said parish church of S. Michæl, a Colledge of a maister and 9. priestes or Chaplens, & deceased 1385. was there buried in the Chappell by the Quire: but his monument
Monument of Sir W. Wal
defaced and since fal
sified, and so remayneth.
being a
mongst other by bad people defaced, in the raigne of Edward the 6. & againe since renued by the Fishmongers, who for lacke of know
ledge, what before had beene written in his Epitaph, followed a fabulous booke, and wrote Iacke Straw in steed of Wat Tylar, & therefore haue I the more at large discoursed of this matter.

It hath also beene and is nowe growne to a common opinion, that in reward of this seruice done, by the said William Walworth against the rebell. King Richard added to the armes of this Cit
tie (which was argent, a plaine crosse Gulas) a sword or dagger, (for so they terme it) whereof I haue read no such record, but ra
ther that which soundeth to the contrary:
For I finde that in the fourth yeare of Richard the second in a full assembly made in the vpper chamber of the Guildhall, summoned by this VVilliam Walworth, then Mayor, as well of Aldermen as of the common counsaile in euery ward, for certaine affaires concerning the king, it was there by common consent agreed and ordayned, that the old seale of the
Old seale of the Mayoralty broken, and a new seale made.
office of the Maioraltie of the citie being very smal, old, vnapt, & vncomely, for the honor of the city, should be broken, & one other new should be had, which the said Mayor commanded to be made artificially, & honorable for the exercise of the said office ther
after in place of the other: in which new seale, besides the images of Peter, and Paule, which of olde were rudely engrauen, there should be vnder the feet of the said images, a shield of the armes of
The armes of this cittie were not altered, but remaine as afore.
the said cittie perfectly graued, with two Lyons supporting the same with two sergeants of arms, an other parte, one & two taber
nacles, in which aboue should stand two angels, between whom aboue the said images of Peter and Paule shall be set the glorious Uirgine: this being done, the old seale of the Office was deliuered to Richard Odiham Chamberlaine, who brake it, and in place thereof, was deliuered the new seale to the said Mayor to vse in his office, of maioraltie, as occasion should require. This new seale see
meth to be made before W. Walworth was knighted, for he is not here intituled Sir, as afterwardes he was: and certaine it is that the same new seale then made, is now in vse and none other in that office of the Maioraltie: which may suffice to answere the former fable, without shewing of any euidence sealed with the olde seale, which was the crosse and sword as now &c.
Now the other monuments in that church Simon Mordon May
or, 1368. was buried there, Iohn Olney Mayor 1446. Robert March Stockfishmonger gaue two péeces of grounde to bee a churchyarde: Iohn Radwell Stockefishmonger, buried 1415. George Gowre Esquire, son to Edward Gowre Stockfishmon
ger Esquire, 1470. Alexander Purpoint Stockfishmonger,

1373. Andrew Burel Gentleman of Greyes Inne, 1487. Iohn Shrow Stockfishmonger 1487. With this Epitaph.
Farewell my friendes the tide abydeth no man
I am departed hence, and so shall ye.
But in this passage the best song that I can
Is requiem eternam, now Iesu grant it me,
VVhen I haue ended all mine aduersitie,
Grant me in Paradise to haue a mansion,
That shedst the blood for my redemption.
Iohn Fenkell one of the Sheriffes, 1487. was knighted, and gaue 40.£. to this church, the one halfe for his monument. Iohn Pattessey Mayor, 1441. Thomas Ewen Grocer, bare halfe the charges in building of the stéeple, & was buried, 1501. William Combes Gent. of Stoke by Gilford in Surrey 1502. Sir Iohn Brudge Mayor, 1530. gaue 50.£. for a house called the Colledge in Crooked lane, he lyeth buried in S. Nicholas Hacon. Walter Faireford, Robert Barre, Alexander Heyband, Iohn Motte, Iohn Gramstone, Iohn Brampton, Iohn Wood Stockfishmon
ger, 1531. Sir Henry Amcots Mayor, 1548. &c. Harde by this S. Michæls church, on the south side thereof, in the yeare 1560. on the 5. of Iuly through the shooting of a gun, which brake in the house
Houses in Crooked lane blowne vp with gunpow
of one Adrian Arten. a dutch man & set fire on a firkin and barrell of gunpowder, foure houses were blowen vp, and diuers o
ther sore shattered: 11. men and women were slaine, and 16. so hurt and brused, that they hardly escaped with life.
West from this S. Michæls lane is S. Martins Orgar lane,
S. Martins Or
, and parish church.
by Candle wick stréet, which lane is on both sides downe to a well re
plenished with faire and large houses for marchants, & it is of this ward: one of which houses was sometime called Beachamps Inne as pertaining vnto thē of that familie. Thomas Arundell Arch
bishop of Canterburie, commonly for his time was lodged there.
The parish church of S. Martin Orgor is a smal thing. William Crowmer Mayor, builded a proper chappel on the south side ther
of, and was buried there 1533. Iohn Mathew Mayor 1490. Sir William Huet Mayor, 1559. With his Ladie and daughter, wife to Sir Edward Osborne, Raph Tabinham Alderman, Alice wife to Thomas Winslow, Thorudon, Benedicke Reding, Thomas Harding, Iames Smith, Richard Gainford Esquire.

VVinslow Gent. Iohn Bold &c. Then is there one other lane called S. Laurence, of the parish church there. This lane down to the south side of the churchyard, is of Candlewicke streete warde. The parish church of S. Laurence
Parish church of S. Laurence Poultney made a Col
was increased with a chappell of Iesus by Thomas Cole, for a maister and Chaplens, the which chappell and parish church was made a Colledge of Iesus, and of Corpus Christi, for a maister and seuen chaplens, by Iohn Poult
mayor, and was confirmed by Edward the third, the 20. of his raigne, of him was this church called S. Laurence Poultney in Candlewickestréet, which Colledge was valued at 79.l.17. .xj.ď and was surrendred in the raigne of Edward the sixt. Robert Rat
Earle of Sussex, & Henry Ratcliffe Earle of Sussex, were buried there. Alderman Beswicke was buried there, Iohn Olyfe Alderman, Robert Browne & others. Thus much for this ward, & the antiquities thereof. It hath now an Alderman his Deputie, Common Counsellors 8 Constables 8. Scauengers 6. Warde
mote inquest men 12. and a Beadle. It is taxed to the fifteene at xvj.pound.

Cite this page

MLA citation

Stow, John, and William fitz Stephen. Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward. The Map of Early Modern London, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 20 Jun. 2018,

Chicago citation

Stow, John, and William fitz Stephen. Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward. The Map of Early Modern London. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed June 20, 2018.

APA citation

Stow, J., & fitz Stephen, W. 2018. Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London. Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from

RIS file (for RefMan, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

A1  - Stow, John
A1  - fitz Stephen, William
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
PY  - 2018
DA  - 2018/06/20
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  -
UR  -
ER  - 


RT Web Page
SR Electronic(1)
A1 Stow, John
A1 fitz Stephen, William
A6 Jenstad, Janelle
T1 Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward
T2 The Map of Early Modern London
WP 2018
FD 2018/06/20
RD 2018/06/20
PP Victoria
PB University of Victoria
LA English
OL English

TEI citation

<bibl type="mla"><author><name ref="#STOW6"><surname>Stow</surname>, <forename>John</forename></name></author>, and <author><name ref="#FITZ1"><forename>William</forename> <surname><nameLink>fitz</nameLink> Stephen</surname></name></author>. <title level="a">Survey of London: Candlewick Street Ward</title>. <title level="m">The Map of Early Modern London</title>, edited by <editor><name ref="#JENS1"><forename>Janelle</forename> <surname>Jenstad</surname></name></editor>, <publisher>U of Victoria</publisher>, <date when="2018-06-20">20 Jun. 2018</date>, <ref target=""></ref>.</bibl>





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