A Survey of London

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A SVRVAY OF LONDON.
Contayning the Originall, Antiquity, Increase, Moderne estate, and description of that Citie, written in the yeare 1598. by Iohn Stow Citizen of London.
Also an Apologie (or defence) against the opinion of some men, concerning that Citie, the greatnesse thereof.
With an Appendix, containing in Latine, Libellum de situ & nobilitate Londini : Written by William Fitzstephen, in the raigne of Henry the second.
Imprinted by Iohn Wolfe, Printer to the honorable Citie of London: And are to be sold at his shop within the Popes head Alley in Lombard street. 1598.


TO THE RIGHT Honorable, the Lord Mayor of the Citie of London, to the communaltie, and Citizens of the same, Iohn Stow Citizen, wisheth long health and felicitie.
SInce the first publishing of the perambulation of Kent, by that learned Gentleman M. William Lambert Esquire, I haue hearde of sundry other able persons to haue (according to the desire of that au
thor) assayed to doe somewhat for the particular Shires and Connties1, where they were borne, or dwelt, of which none that I knowe (sauing M. Nor
den
, for the Counties of Middlesex, & Hertford) haue vouchsafed their labors
to
A2

The Epistle
to the commō good in that behalf. And therefore concurring with the first, in the same desire to haue drawn together such speciall descriptions of each place, as might not onely make vp an whole body of the English Chronographie a
mongst our selues: but also might giue occasion, and courage to M. Camdin to increase and beutifie his singular worke of the whole, to the view of the learned that be abroade. I haue attemp
ted the discouery of London, my natiue soile and Countrie, at the desire and perswasion of some my good friendes, aswell because I haue seene sundrie an
tiquities my selfe touching that place, as also for that through search of Recordes to other purposes, dyuers written helpes are come to my handes, which few o
thers haue fortuned to meete withall, it is a seruice that most agreeth with my
professed

Dedicatorie.
professed trauelles. It is a duty, that I willingly ow to my natiue mother & Countrie. And an office that of right I holde my selfe bound in loue to bestow vpon the politike body and members of the same: what London hath beene of auncient time, men may here see, as what it is now euery man doth behold: I know that the argument, being of the chiefe and principall Citie of the land, required the penne of some excellent Artisen, but fearing that none woulde attempt, and finish it, as few haue assay
ed any, I chose rather (amongst other my Laboures) to handle it after my plaine manner, then to leaue it vnper
formed. Touching the Dedication, I am not doubtfull where to seeke my patrone, since you be a politique estate of the Citie, as the walles & buildinges be the materiall partes of the same. To
you
A3

The Epistle.
you therefore, doe I addresse this my whole labour, as well that by your au
thority I may be protected, as warran
ted by your own skill and vnderstand
ing of that which I haue written, I con
fes that I lacked my desire to the accō
plishment of some speciall partes; but I trust hereafter that shalbe supplied, and I professe (if more touching this worke come vnto me) to afforde it, in all dutie. In the meane time, I recommend this to your view, my laboures to your consi
deration, and my selfe to your ser
uice, (as I haue professed du
ring life) in this or any other.

A Table of the Chapters contained in this Booke.
A

1
A Suruay of London, conteyning the o
riginall, antiquitie, increase, moderne estate, and description of that Cittie.
AS Rome the chiefe Citie of the world to glorifie it selfe, drew her originall from the Gods, Goddesses, and demy Gods, by the Troian progeny. So this famous Citie of London for greater glorie, and in emu
lation of Rome, deriueth it selfe from the very same originall. For (as Ieffery of Monmoth, the Welche Historian repor
teth Brute descended from the demy god Eneas, the sonne of Ve
nus
, daughter of Iupiter, aboute the yeare of the world 2855. the yeare before Christes natiuitie, 1108. builded a Citie neare vn
to a riuer now called Thames, and named it Troynouant. or Tre
nouant
.
Trinouan
tum hath the writen Copies.
King Lud afterwarde not onely repayred this Cittie, but also added fayre buildings, Towres, and wals, and called it after his owne name Caire-Lud
Caire-Lud, the Citie of Lud, but Luds town is a Saxon word.
or Luds towne, and the strong gate which he builded in the west part of the Cittie, hée likewise for his owne honor named it Ludgate.
This Lud had issue two sons, Androgeus, and Themantius, who being not of age to gouerne at the death of their Father: their Unckle Cassibilan, tooke vpon him the crowne, about the eight yeare of whose raigne2 , Iulius Cesar ariued in this land with a greate power of Romains to conquer it, the manner of which con
quest I will summarily set down out of his own Commentaries, which are of farre better credit, then the relations of Geffery Monmouth.
Cesars Co
mentaries. liber. 5.
The chiefe gouernement of the Britons, and ordering of the warres, was then by common aduice committed to Cassibilan, whose Signiorie was seperated from the Cities towardes the sea coast, by the riuer called Thames, about fourescore miles from the sea, this Cassibilan in times past, had made continuall warre vpon the Cities adioyning, but the Britons being moued with
the
B

2
Antiquity of London.
the Romaines inuasion, had resolued in that necessitie to make him their Soueraigne and Generall of the warres (which continued hot betwéene the Romains and them) but in the meane while, the Trinobantes
Trinobants Citizens of London
which was then the strongest Cittie well neare of al those countries (and out of which Citie a young gentleman cal
led Mandubrace, vpon confidence of Celars helpe, came vnto him into the maine land of Gallia now called France, and thereby es
caped death, which he should haue suffered at Cassibilans hande,) sent their Ambassadors to Cesar, promising to yeeld vnto him, and to doe what he should commande them, instantly desiring him, to protect Mandubrace from the furious tirannie of Cassibilan, and to send him into their Cittie, with authority to take the gouern
ment thereof vpon him. Cesar accepted the offer, and appointed them to geue vnto him 40. Hostages, and withall to finde him graine for his army, and so sent he Mandubrace
Mādubrace and the Trinobants yeeld to Cesar, and he defended them.
vnto them.
When others saw that Cesar had not onelie defended the Tri
nobantes
against Cassibilan, but had also saued them harmeles from the pillage of his own souldiers, then did the Conimagues, Se
gontians, Ancalits, Bibrokes
, and Cassians, likewise submit themselues vnto him, and by them he learned that not farre from thence was Cassibilans towne,
Cassibilans towne west from Lon
don
for Ce
sar
saith 80. miles from the sea, Cities of the Britaines were com
bersom woods for
tified.
fortified with woods, and marish ground, into the which hee had gathered a greate number both of men and cattell.
For the Brittons call that a town (saith Cesar) when they haue fortified a combarsom wood with a ditch and rampire, and the
ther they resorte to abide the approach of their ennemies, to this place therefore marched Cesar, with his Legions, hee founde it ex
cellentlie fortified both of nature, and by mans aduice: neuerthe
lesse he resolued to assault it in two seuerall places at once, where
upon the Brittons being not able to endure the force of the Ro
maines
, fled out at an other parte, and left the towne vnto him: a greate number of cattell he found there, and many of the Britons he slew, and other he tooke in the chase.
Whilst these thinges were a doing in these quarters, Cassibi
lan
sent messengers into Kent, which lieth vpon the sea, in which there raigned then 4. particular kinges, named Cingetorix, Car
uil, Taximagul
, and Segonax, whome he commanded to raise all
their

3
Antiquitie of London.
their forces, and suddenly to set vppon, and assault the Romaines, in their trenches, by the sea side: the which when the Romaines perceiued, they salied out vpon them, slew a greate sorte of them, and taking Cingetorix their noble Captaine prisoner, retired themselues to their Campe in good safety.
When Cassibilan harde of this, and had formerly taken many other losses, and found his countrie sore wasted, and himselfe left almost alone by the defection of the other Cities, he sent Ambassa
dors by Connius of Arras, to Cesar, to entreate with him, concer
ning his own submission, the which Cesar did accept, and taking Hostages, assessed the Realme of Britaine,
Britaine sessed to pay a yerely tri
bute to the Romaines.
to a yearely tribute, to be payed to the people of Rome, giuing straight charge to Cas
sibilan
, that he should not séeke any reuenge vpon Mandubrace or the Trinobantes, and so withdrew his armie to the sea againe.
Thus farre out of Cesars Commentaries concerning this Hi
storie, which happened in the yeare before Christes natiuitie 54. in all which processe there is for this purpose to bee noted, that Cesar nameth the Citie of Trinobantes, which hath a resem
blance with Troy noua or Trinobantum, which hath no greater difference in the Orthographie, then changing b. into v. and yet maketh an error which I will not argue, onely this I will note that diuers learned men do not thinke ciuitas Trinobantum
Trinobant, new Lon.
don.
to be well and truely translated, the Citie of the Trinobantes: but it should rather be the state, comonalty, or Signiory, of the Trino
bantes
: for that Cesar in his Comentaries vseth the worde ciui
tas
, onely for a people liuing vnder one, and the selfe same Prince and law but certaine it is that the Cities of the Britaines,
Cities of the Britans not artificially builded with houses nor walled. with stone
were in those daies neither artificially builded with houses, nor strongly walled with stone, but were onely thicke and combarsom woodes plashed within and trenched aboute: and the like in effect do other the Romaine and Greeke autors directly affirme, as Strabo Pomponius Mela, and Dion a Senator of Rome, which flourish
ed in the seuerall raignes of the Romaine Emperours, Tiberius Claudius, Domitian, and Seuerus, to wit that before the ariuall of the Romains, the Britons had no townes but called that a town which had a thicke intangled wood, defended as I saide with a ditch and banke, the like whereof the Irishmen our next neighbors
doe
B2

4
Antiquity of London.
doe at this day call Paces, but after that these hether partes of Britaine were reduced into the forme of a Prouince by the Ro
maines
, who sowed the seedes of ciuilitie ouer all Europe, this Citie whatsoeuer it was before, began to bee renowned, and of fame.
For Tacitus, who first of all Autors nameth it Londinum, sayth that in the 62. after Christ it was albeit, no Colonie of the Romaines, yet most famous
London most famus for Mar
chantes and intercourse.
for the greate multitude of Mar
chantes, prouision, and intercourse. At which time in that notable reuolte of the Br3itons from Nero, in which 70000. Romaines & their leager fellowes were slaine, this Citie with Verulam nere S. Albons, and Maldon, then all famous: were ransacked and spoiled.
For Suetonius Paulinus then Lieftennant for the Romaines in this Isle, abandoned it: as not then forseyied, and left it to the spoile.
Shortly after, Iulius Agricola, the Romaine Liefetennant, in the time of Domitian, was the first that by adhorting the Bri
taines
,
The Britons had no hou
ses, but cot
tages.
publikely, and helping them priuately, wun them to builde houses for themselues, temples for the Gods, and courtes for Iu
stice, to bring vp the noblemens children in good letters and hu
manity, and to apparrell themselues Romaine like, whereas be
fore (for the most parte) they went naked, painting their bodies &c. as all the Romaine writers haue obserued.
The Britons went naked their bodi
es painted.
True it is I confesse, that afterwarde many Cities and Towns in Britaine vnder the gouernement of the Romaines, were wal
led with stone, & baked bricks, or tyles, as Richborrow, or Rypta
cester
, in the Isle of Thanet, til the channell altered his course, be
sides Sandwitch, in Kent, Verulamium
Richborow in Kent Verulami
um. Cilcester Roxcester Kenchester. Keyland. Of the wal, about Lon
don
.
besides S. Albones, in Hartfordshire, Cilcester, in Hampshire, Roxcester in Shrop
shire, Kenchester
in Herefordshire, thrée miles from Hereford towne, Ribchester, 7. miles aboue Preston, on the water of Rib
le, Aldeburge
a mile from Borrowbridge, or Wathelingstreet, on Vre Riuer and others, & no doubt but this our Citie of Lon
don
, was also walled with stone, in the time of the Romaine go
uernement here, but yet very lately, for it seemeth not to haue beene walled in the yeare of our Lorde 296. because in that yeare
when

5
Antiquitie of London.
when Alectus the Tyrant4 was slaine in the field, the Frankes ea
sily entred London, and had sacked the same, had not God of his greate fauour, at the very instant brought along the riuer of Tha
mes
, certaine bandes of Romaine Souldiers, who slew those Frankes in euerie streete of the Cittie.
In few yeares after, as Simeon of Durham, an ancient wri
ter reporteth, Hellen the mother of Constantine the greate, was the first that inwalled it aboute the yeare of Christ 306. howsoe
uer those wals of stone might be builded by Helen, yet the Brit5ōs, (I know) had no skil of building with stone, as it may appeare by that, which followeth about the yere after Christ, 399, when Ar
cadius
& Honorius the sonnes of Theodosius Magnus, gouerned the Empire, the one in the East, the other in the West, for Ho
norius
hauing receiued Britaine, the Citie of Rome was inuaded and destroyed, by the Gathes after which time the Romaines left
The Ro
maines left to gouerne Britaine.
to rule in Britaine, as being, imployed in defence of their Ter
ritories nerer home, whereupon the Britains not able to defende themselues against the inuasions of their enemies, were many yeres together vnder the oppression of two most cruell nations, the Scots and Pictes,
The Scots and Picts inuade this land.
and at the length were forced to send their Ambassadors with letters and lamentable supplications, to come, requiring aide and succour from thence, vpon promise of their con
tinuall fealtie, so that the Romaines woulde rescue them out of the handes of their ennemies. Hereupon the Romaines sent vnto them a Legion of armed Souldiers, which comming into this I
land, and incountering with the ennemies, ouerthrew a great number of them, and draue the rest out of the frontiers of the countrie, and so setting the Britaines at liberty, counselled them to make a wall, extending all along betwéene the twoo seas, which might be of force to kéepe out their euill neighboúrs, and then re
turned home with greate triumph: But the Britaines
Britaines vnskilfull of building with stone
wanting Masons builded that wall not of stone as they were aduised, but made it of turfe, and that so slender, that it serued litle or nothing at al for their defence: and the ennemie perceiuing that the Ro
maine Legiō
was returned home, forthwith arriued, out of their boates, inuaded the borders, ouercame the countrie, and as it were, bare down al that was before them.
Where-
B3

6
Wall about the Citie of London.
Whereupon Ambassadors were eftsoones dispatched to Rome, lamentably beseeching that they woulde not suffer their miserable countrey to be vtterly destroyed: then againe an other Legion was sent, which comming vpon a suddaine, made a greate slaugh
ter of the ennemie, and chased him home, euen vnto his own coun
try. These Romaines at their departure, tolde the Britaines plainely, that it was not for their ease or leasure to take vpon them any more such long and laborious iournyes for their defence, and therefore bad them practise the vse of armour and weapons, and learne to withstand their ennemies, whome nothing else did make so strong as their faint hart, and cowardise, and for so much as they thought that it would be no small helpe and encouragement vnto their Tributary frendes whom they were now forced to for
sake,
Witichin
dus.
they builded for them a wall of harde stone from the west sea to the east sea, right betwéene those two Cities, which were there made to kéepe out the ennemies, in the selfe same place where Seuerus before had cast his Trench.
Wal of ston builded by the Romās. bewtixt the Britans, and Scots.
The Britaines al
so putting to their helping handes as laborers.
This wall they builded 8. foote thicke in breadth, and 12. foote in height, right as it were by a lyne, from east to west, as the ru
ines thereof remaining in many places til this day, do make to ap
peare. Which worke thus perfected, they giue the people straight charge to looke well to themselues, they teach them to handle their weapons, and they instruct them in warlike feates. And lest by the sea side southwardes, where their ships lay at harbor, the ennemie should come on land, they made vp sundrie Bulwarkes each some what distant from the other, and so bid them farewell as minding no more to returne. This happened in the daies of the Emperour Theodosius the younger almost 500. yeares af
ter the first ariuall of the Romaines here, aboute the yeare after Christes incarnation, 434.
The Britaines after this, continuing a lingering & doubtful war with the Scots and Pictes, made choice of Vortiger, to bee their king and leader, which man (as sayth Malmesbery, ) was neither valorous of courage, nor wise of counsell, but wholy giuen ouer to the vnlawful lusts of his flesh: the people likewise in short time, being growne to some quietnes gaue themselues to gluttony,
The Bri
tains giuen to gluttony, dronkennes, pride and contention.
and
dronkennes,

7
Wall about the Citie of London.
drunkennes, pride, contention, enuie, and such other vices, casting from them the yoke of Christ. In the meane season a bitter plague fell among them, consuming in short time such a multitude, that the quicke were not sufficient to bury the deade, and yet the rem
nant remayned so hardened in sinne, that neither the death of their frendes nor feare of their owne daunger, could cure the mortality of their soules, whereupon a greater stroke of vengeance insued vpon the whole sinfull nation.
The Britaines plagued for their sinfull life.
For being now againe infested with their old neighbors the Scots, and Pictes, they consult with their king Vortiger, and send for the Saxons, who shortly after ariued here in Britaine, where saith Bede,
Witichendus6. Bede.
they were receiued as frends: but as it proued they minded to destroy the countrie as ennemies for after that they had driuen out the Scots and Pictes, they also draue the Britaines some ouer the seas, and some into the waste mountaines of Wales and Cornewell, and deuided the countrie into diuers kingdomes amongst themselues.
The Saxons sent for to de
fend the Bri
taines, but they draue thé into the moun
tains.
These Saxons were likewise ignorant of the Architecture or building with stone,
Saxons vnskil
ful of building with stone.
vntill the yere of Christ 680. for then it is af
firmed that Bennet Abbote of Wirall, Maister to the reuerend Bede, first brought Masons and Workemen in stone into this Iland amongst the Saxons,
Benet a monk brought ma
sons into this land amongst the Saxons.
(he I say) brought hyther Artificers of stone houses, Paynters and Glasiers, artes before that time vnto the Saxons vnknowne, who before that time vsed but wodden buildinges.
Thus much be sayed for walling, not onely in respect of this Ci
ty, but generally also of the first, within the Realme. Now to returne to our Trinouant,
Trinouāt since called Londō.
(as Cesar hath it) the same is since by Tacitus, Ptolomeus, and Antoninus called Londinium, Longi
dinum
, of Amiamus, Lundinum, and Augusta who calleth it an auncient Citie of our Britaines Lundayne, of the olde Saxons, Lundonceaster, Londonbeig, of strangers, Londra and Lon
dres
, of the inhabitants, London, whereof you may reade a more large and learned discourse, and how it tooke the name in that worke of my louing frend M. Camden
Camden. the city of Lon
don
destroyed by the Danes, and againe re
paired.
now Clarenciaulx which is called Britania.
This Citie of London hauing beene destroyed and brent by the Danes and other Pagan ennemies about the yere of Christ,
839
B4

8
Wall about the Citie of London.
839. was by Alfred king of the west Saxons, in the yere 886 re
payred and honorably restored, and made againe habitable. Who also committed the custody thereof vnto his sonne in law, Ethelrod Earle of Mercia7, vnto whome before hee had giuen his daughter Ethelfled.
And that this Citie was strongly walled, may appeare by di
uers accidents, whereof I haue read some, namely William of Malsmebery, hath that about the yeare of Christ, 994. the Lon
doners
, shut vp their gates and defended their king Ethelrod, within their wals against the Danes, in the yeare 1016. Ed
mōd
I8ronside
raigning ouer the west Saxons Canute the Dane bringing his nauie into the west part of the bridge, cast a Trench aboute the Citie of London, and then attempted to haue won it by assault, but the Citizens repulsed him and draue him from their wals. Also in the yeare 1052. Earle Godwin with his nauie sayled vp by the south ende of the bridge, and so assailed the wals of this Citie, & Wiliam Fitzstephen
W. FitzstephēThe Citie of London wal
led round a
boute by the Riuer of Thames. Wals of Lon
don
repayred
writing in the raigne of king Henry the second, of the wals of this Citie, hath these words. The wal is high and great, well towred on the Northside with due distances betweene the towers. On the southside also the Citie was walled and towred, but the fishful riuer of Thames with his ebbing, and flowing hath long since subuerted them.
This may suffice for proofe of a wall, and forme thereof, about this Citie, and the same to haue béene of greate antiquity, as any other within this Realme, and now touching the maintenance & repayring the saide wals, I finde that in the yere 1215, the 16. of King Iohn , the Barons entring the Citie by Ealdgate, first tooke assurance of the Citizens, and then they brake into the hou
ses of the Iewes, and searched their coffers, and after with greate diligence repayred the wals, and the gates of the Citie of London with stone, taken from the Iewes broken houses. In the yeare 1257. Henry the 3. caused the wals of the Citie of London, which were sore decai9ed and destitute of Towers, to be repayred in more seemely wise then before, at the common charges of the Citie. Al
so in the yeare 1282. King Edward the first granted to H. VVal
leis
Maior, and the Citizens of London, the fauour, to take to
ward the making of the wall, and inclosure of the Citie, certaine customes, as appeareth by his grante. This wal was then to be
made

9
Wall about the Citie of London
made from Ludgate to Fleete bridge, and along by the water of Fleete, vnto the riuer of Thames. Moreouer in the yere 1310. Edward the 2. commanded the Citizens to make vp the wal alre
dy begunne, and the Tower, at the ende of the same wall, within the water of Thames neare vnto the blacke Fryers &c. It was also granted by king Richard the socond in the 10. of his raign that a Toll shoulde be taken of wares, solde by lande and by water for 10. yeares, towardes the repayring of the wals and clensing of the ditch aboute London. In the 17. of Edward the 4. Ralfe Ioceline, Mayor, caused parte of the wall aboute the Citie of London,
Pattent.
to be rapayred, to wit, betwixt Aldgate and Aldersgate he also caused the Morefielde to bee searched for clay, and willed bricke to be made, and brent there, he likewise caused chalke to bee brought out of Kent and to be brent into lime in the same More
field
, for more furtherance of the worke. Then the Skinners, to begin in the East, made that parte of the wall, betwixt Al
gate
and Buries marke towardes Bishopsgate, as may appeare by their armes in thrée places fixed there, the Mayor with his cō
pany of the Drapers made all that part, betwixt Bishopsgate & Alhallowes Church in the same, and from Alhallowes towards the Posterne. A great part of the same wal called Moregate was repayred by the executors of Sir Iohn Crosby, late Alderman, as may appeare by his Armes, standing in two places there. Other Companies repayred the rest of the wal to the Posterne of Criple
gate
. The Goldsmiths repayred frō Criplegate, towards Alders
gate
, & there the work ceased. The circuite of the wall
Circuit of the Wall from the east to the west.
of London on the landes side, to wit from the tower of London in the east, vnto Aldgate, is 82. perches: from Aldgate to Bishopsgate, 86. perches: from Bishopsgate in the north to the Postern of Criple
gate
162 perches, from Criplegate to Ealdersgate 75. perches, from Eldrichgate to Newgate, 66. perches, from Newgate in the west to Ludgate, 42. perches, in all 513. perches of assize. From Ludgate againe to the Fleete dike, west, about 60. perches: from Fleete bridge south to the riuer of Thames, aboute 70. perches, and so the totall of these perches amounteth to 643. euery perch, consisting of 5. yeardes and a halfe, which do yeelde 3536. yardes and a halfe, conteyning 10608 foote, which make vp two eng
lish miles and more by 608. foote.
Of
B5

10
Of the Auncient and Present Riuers, Brooks, Boorns, Pooles, wels, and Conduites of fresh water, seruing the Citie, as also of the ditch, compassing the wall of the same.
AUnciently vntill the Conquerors time,10 and 200. yeres after, the Citie of London was watered be
sides the famous Riuer of Thames, on the South part, with the riuer of the wels, as it was then cal
led on the west, with a water called walbrooke, runing through the middest of the Citie into the riuer of Thames seruing the hart thereof. And with a fourth water or Boorne, which ran within the Citie, through Langboorne warde, wate
ring that parte in the East. In the west Suburbes was also an o
ther greate water, called Oldborne, which had his fall into the Riuer of wels: then was there 3. principall Fountaines, or wels in the other Suburbes, to wit Holly well, Clements well, and Clarkes wel. Neare vnto this last named fountaine, were diuers other wels, to wit Skinners well, Fags well, Tede well, Leders well, and Radwell. In west Smithfield there was a Poole, in recordes called Horsepoole, And one other Poole neare vnto the parish Church of S. Giles without Criplegate. Besides all which they had in euery streete and lane of the City diuers fayre wels, and fresh springes: and after this manner was this Citie then serued, with sweete & fresh waters, which being since decayed, other meanes haue beene sought to supply the want, as shall bee shewed, but first of the aforenamed Riuers and other waters, is to be said, as followeth.
Thames
Riuer of Thames.
the most famous Riuer of this Iland, beginneth a little aboue a village called winchcombe in Oxfordshire, and still in
creasing passeth first by the vniuersitie of Oxford, and so with a maruelous quiet course to London, and thence breaketh into the French Ocean by maine tides, which twise in 24. howers space doeth eb and flow, more then 60. miles in length, to the great
com-

11
Rivers and other waters seruing this Citie
commodity of Trauellers, by the which all kinde of Marchandise be easily conueyed to London, the principall store house, and sta
ple of all Commodities within this Realme: so that omitting to speake of greate ships, and other vessels of burden, there perteyneth to the Cities of London, westminster and Burrough of South
warke
aboue the number as is supposed of 2000. Wherryes and other small boates, whereby 3000. poore men at the least bee set on worke and maintained.
That the Riuer of the wels
whirries on the Thames. Riuer of wels
in the west parte of the Citie, was of old time so called: it may be prooued thus, william the Conquer
or in his Charter, to the Colledg of S. Martin, le Grand in Lon
don
, hath these wordes: I do geue and grant to the same church all the land and the Moore, without the Posterne, which is called Criplegate, on eyther parte of the Posterne, that is to say, from the North corner of the wal, as the ryuer of the wels, there neare running departeth the same More from the wal, vnto the runing water which entreth the Cittie, this water hath beene since that time called Turnemill Brooke: yet then called the riuer of the Wels, which name of Ryuer continued: and it was so called in the raign of Edwarde the first: as shalbe shewed, with also the decay of the saide riuer,
Decay of the Riuer of the Wels.
in a fayre booke of Parliament recordes,
parliament re
cord.
now lately restored to the Tower, it appeareth that a parl11iament being holden at Carlile in the yere 1307, the 35. of Edwarde the first, Henry Lacy Earle of Lincolne, complayned that whereas in times past the course of water, running at London, vnder Olde
borne
bridge
, and Fleete bridge into the Thames, had. beene of such bredth and depth, that 10. or 12. Shippes, Nauies, at once with Marchandizes, were wont to come to the foresaide bridge of Fleete, and some of them to Oldborne bridge:
Riuer of wels bare shipes.
now the same course by filth of the Tanners and such others, was sore decayed: also by raising of wharses, but specially by a diuersion of the wa
ter made by them of the new Temple, for their milles standing without Baynardes Castle, in the first yeare of King Iohn
patent recorde Mils by Bay
nardes castle
made in the first of King Iohn.
and diuers other impedimentes, so as the saide ships could not enter as they were wont, and as they ought, wherefore he desired that the Mayor of London with the Sheriffes, and other discrete Alder
men
, might be appointed to view the course of the saide water, and
that

12
Riuers and other waters seruing this Citie
that by the othes of good men, all the aforesaide hinderances might be remoued, and it to be made as it was wont of olde: whereupon Roger le Brabason, the Constable of the Tower, with the May
or
and Sheriffes were assigned to take with them honest and dis
crete men, and to make diligent search & inquiry, how the said ry
uer was in olde time, and that they leaue nothing that may hurt or stop it, but keepe it in the same estate, that it was wont to bee: so farre the recorde. Whereupon it followed that the saide riuer,
Riuer socalled in the yeare 1307.
was at that time clensed, these mils remoued, and other thinges done for the preseruation of the course thereof, notwithstanding neuer brought to the old depth, and breadth, whereupon the name of riuer ceased, and it was since called a Brooke, namely Turn
mil
or Tremill Brooke, for that diuers mils were erected vpon it, as appeareth by a fayre Register booke, conteyning the foun
dation of the Priorie at Clarkenwel, and donation of the landes, thereunto belonging, as also by diuers other recordes.
This brooke hath beene diuers times since clensed, namely and last of all to any effect. In the yeare 1502. the 17. of Henry the 7. the whole course of Fleete dike, then so called was scow
red (I say) down to the Thames, so that boates with fish and few
ell were rowed to Fleete bridge and to Oldborne bridge, as they of olde time had beene accustomed, which was a great com
modity to all the inhabitantes in that part of the City.
In the yeare 1589. was granted a fifteene, by a common Councell of the Cittie, for the clensing of this Brooke or dike and the money amounting to a thousand markes was collected,
Fleete dike promised to be clensed: the money collect
ed, but the Citizens de
cei12ued.
and it was vndertaken that by drawing diuers springes about Hamp
stid hea
t13h, into one head and course, both the Citie should be ser
ued of fresh water, in all places of want, and also that by such a follower, as men call it the channell of this brooke shoulde bee scowred into the Ryuer of Thames, but much money being ther
in spent, she effect fayled, so that the brookes by meanes of conti
nuall incrochments vpon the banks gyttying ouer the water, and casting of soilage into the streame, is now become worse cloy
ed and choken then euer it was before.
The running water so called
A running water called Walbrooke.
by William the Conqueror in his saide Charter, which entreth the Citie &c. before there was
any

13
Riuers and other waters.
any ditch betwéene Bishopsgate and the late made Posterne cal
led Moregate, entred the wal and was truely of the wall called Walbrooke not of Gualo as some haue farre fetched: it ranne through the Citie with diuers windinges from the North to
wardes the South into the riuer of Thames, and had ouer the same diuers Bridges, along the Streetes and Lanes, through which it passed. I haue read in an olde writing booke intituled the customes
liber customs14
of London, that the Prior of the Holy Trinity within Aldgate ought to make ouer VValbrooke in the ward of Br15ed
streete
, against the stone wall of the Citie, vz. the same Bridge that is next the Church of Al Saintes, at the wall. Also that the Prior of the new Hospitall, S. Marie Spittle, without Bishops
gate
ought to make the middle parte of one other Bridge next to the saide Bridge towardes the North: And that in the 28. yeare of Edwarde the first, it was by inquisition found before the Ma
ior
of London that the parish of S. Stephen vppon walbrooke, ought of right to couer the course of the saide Brooke, and there
fore the Shieriffes were commanded to distrayne the saide Pari
shioners so to doe in the yeare 1300. the keepers of those Bridges at that time were VVilliam Iordan, and Iohn de Bauer. This watercourse hauing diuers Bridges, was afterwardes vaulted o
uer with Bricke, and paued leuill with the streetes and lanes, where through it passed, and since that also houses haue beene builded thereon, so that the course of VValbrooke
Walbrooke vaulted and paued ouer.
is now hidden vnder ground, and thereby hardly knowen. Langborne water so called of the length thereof, was a greate streame of water brea
king out of the ground, in Fan Church streete, which ran downe with a swift course, west, through that streete, thwart Grastreet and downe Lombardestreete, to the west ende of S. Mary VVolnothes Church, and then turning the course South downe Shareborne lane, so termed of sharing or deuiding, it brake into diuers rilles or rillets to the Riuer of Thamès, of this Bourne that warde tooke the name, and is till this day called Langborne warde, this Bourne also is long since stopped vp at the heade and the rest of the course filled vp and paued ouer, so that no signe thereof remaineth more then the names aforesaide, Oldeborne or Hilborne was the like water, breaking out aboute the place
where

14
Riuers and other waters.
where now the bars do stand, and it ran downe the whole streete till Oldebourne bridge, and into the Riuer of the VVels, or Turnemil Brook: this Bourn was likewise long since stoped vp at the head, & in other places where the same hath broken out, but yet till this day, the saide streete is there still called high Oulde
bourn
hil
, and both the sides thereof together with al the grounds adioyning that lye betwixt it, and the riuer of Thames remayne full of springes, so that water is there found at hand, and harde to be stopped in euery house.
There are (saith Fitzstephen
Fitzstephen. Holywell
) neare London, on the North side speciall wels, in the Suburbes: sweete, wholesome, and cleare, amongst which Holywel, Clarkes wel, & Clementes wel, are most famous and frequented by Schollers, and youths of the City in sommer euenings, when they walke foorth to take the aire. The first, to wit, Holywel is much decayed and marred with filthinesse, purposely layd there, for the heighthening of the ground, for garden plots: the fountaine called S. Clements wel, North from the Parish church of S. Clements, and neare vnto an Inne of Chan
cery
, called Clements Inne, is thereof yet fayre curbed square with harde stone, and is alwaies kepte cleane for common vse: it is alwaies ful, and neuer wanteth water, the third is called Clarks well, or Clarken well, and is also curbed aboute square with stone. Not far from the west ende of this Clarkes well Church without the stone wall that incloseth the Church, the other smal
ler wels that stood neare vnto Clarkes wel, to wit Skinners wel, Fagges well, Todwell, Loders well, and Redwell, are all de
cayed and so filled vp. that their places are now hardly discerned: somewhat North from Holywell is one other well curbed square with stone, and is called Dame Annis the cleare, and not farre frō it but somewhat west, is also one other cleare water called Pe
rilous
Pond
, because diuers youthes by swimming therein haue béene drouned, and thus much be saide for fountaines and wels.
Horsepoole in West Smithfielde was sometime a greate water, and because the inhabitantes in that parte of the Citie did there water their Horses, the same was in olde recordes called Horsepoole, it is now much decayed, the springs being stoped vp and the land water falling into the small bottome, remayning
in

15
Riuers and other waters.
inclosed with Bricke, is but fowle: and is called Smithfielde Ponde.
The Poole
poole without Cripplegate.
by S. Giles Churchyarde was a large water in the yeare 1244. for it is read that Anne of Lodbury was drou
ned therein, this Poole is now for the most parte stopped vp, but the spring is preserued, and it was coopped about with stone by the Executors of Richarde VVhittington.
The said riuer of the Wels, the running water of Walbrooke, the Bournes aforenamed, and other the fresh waters that were in and aboute this Citie, being in processe of time by incrochment for buildinges and otherwise vtterlie decayed, and the number of Citizens mightely increased, they were forced to séeke swéete waters abroade, whereof some at the request of king Henry the thirde, in the 21. yeare of his raigne, were for the profite of the Citie, and good of the whole Realme thether repayring, gran
ted to the Citizens and their Successors by one Gilbert Sanford,
Patent 1236.
with liberty to conuey water from the towne of Teiborne, by Pypes of leade into their Citie, & the first Cesterne of leade ca
stellated with stone in the Citie of London was called the greate Conduit in west Cheape, and was begunne to bee builded in the yeare 1285. Henry Wales being then Maior: the water course from Padington to Iames hed hath 510. roddes, from Iames hed on the hill to the Mewsgate, 102. roddes, from the Mewsgate to the crosse in Cheape 484. roddes.
The Tonne vpon Cornhil was Cisterned in the yere 1401. Iohn Chadworth then being Maior.
Bosses of water, at Belinsgate, by Powles wharfe, and by S. Giles Church without Cripplegate made aboute the yere 1423.
Water conueyed to the Gaoles of Newgate and Ludgate, 1432.
Water procured to the Standarde in west Cheape aboute the yeare 1431. king Henry the sixt in the yeare 1442. graun
ted to Iohn Hatharley, Maior licence to take vp 200. fodar of Leade for the building of Conduites of a common Garnery and of a new Crosse in west Cheape, for honor of the Citie.
The Conduit in Aldermanbury and the Standarde in Fleete streete were made and finished by the executors of Sir William
East-

16
Riuers, and other waters
Eastfielde in the yeare 1471. a Sesterne was added to the stan
derd in Fletestreete, and a Sesterne was made at Fleete bridge, and one other without Criplegate in the yeare 1478.
Conduite in Grastreete in the yeare. 1491.
Conduite of Oldbourne Crosse aboute 1498. againe new made by William Lambe, 1577.
Little Conduite by the Stockes market aboute. 1500.
Conduite at Bishopsgate aboute 1513.
Conduite at London wall aboute 1528.
Conduite at Aldgate without, aboute, 1535.
Conduite in Lothbury, and in Colemanstreete. 1546.
Conduite of Thames water, at Dowgate. 1568,
Thames water conueyed into mens houses
Thames wa
ter conueyed into mens houses, in the east parte of the City.
by pypes of lead from a most artificiall forcier standing neare vnto London bridge and made by Peter Moris Dutch man in the yeare 1582. for seruice of the Citie, on the East part thereof.
Conduites
Conduites in old fishstreet.
of Thames water by the parish churches of S. Ma
rie Magdalen
, and S. Nicholas Colde Abby neare vnto olde Fishstrete, in the yeare 1583.
One other new Forcier was made neare to Broken wharfe, to conuey Thames water
Thames wa
ter conueyed into the west part of the City.
into mens houses of west Cheape, a
bout Powles, Fleetestreete &c. by an English Gentleman, na
med Beuis Bulman, in the yeare 1594. Thus much for waters, seruing this Citie, first by Riuers, Brookes, Boornes, Foun
taines, Pooles, &c. And since by Conduites partly made by good and charitable Citizens, and otherwise by chardges of the com
mi16naltie, as shalbe shewed in description of Wards wherein they be placed.
And now some Benefactors to these Conduites shalbee re
membred.
In the yeare 1236. certaine Marchants strangers,
Benefactors towardes the water condu
it17es.
of cities beyonde the Seas, to wit Amiens, Corby, and Nele for priui
ledges which they enioyed in this Citie, gaue 100. £. towardes the charges of conueying water from the towne of Teyborne. Robert Large then Maior 1439. gaue to the new water Condu
ites then in hand, forty Markes, and towarde the vaulting ouer of Walbrooke 200 markes.
Sir

17
Riuers and other waters.
Sir Wiliam Eastfielde conueyed water from Teyborne and from Highbery.
  • x.£.
  • xx £>.
  • x.£.
  • xx.£.
  • gaue 100. markes towardes repayring of Conduites.
  • xx.markes.
  • x £.
  • C.£.
  • xx.£.
  • C.£.
  • 700.£
Thus much for the Conduits of fresh water to this Citie.
The ditch which partly now remaineth,
Liber Dunsta
bla18.
and compassed the wal of the Citie, was begun to be made by the Londoners in the yere 1211. & was finished in the yere 1213. the 15. of king Iohn , this ditch being then made of 200. foote brode,
Ditch about London 200 foote brode. Liber Trinitate
caused no smal hind
rance to the Canons of the holy Trinity, whose church stoode neare vnto Aldgate: for that the saide ditch passed through their grounde, from the Tower of London, vnto Bishopsgate. This ditch being originally made for the defence of the cittie was long together carefully clensed and mainteyned as neede required, but now of late neglected and forced eyther to a very narrow and the same a filthy channel, or altogether stopped vp for gardens planted, and houses builded thereon euen to the very wall, and in many places vpon both ditch and wall, to what danger of the ci
tie, I leaue to wiser consideration: and can but wish, that reforma
tion
C

18
Riuers and other waters seruing this Citie.
tion might be had.
In the yeare of Christ, 1354. the 28. of Edwarde the third, the ditch of this citie flowing ouer the banke into the Tower ditch the king commanded the saide ditch of the citie to be clensed, and so ordered, that the ouerflowing thereof, should not force any filth into the Tower ditch. Anno 1379. Iohn Filpot Maior of Lon
don
caused this ditch to be clensed and euery household to pay v.ď. which was for a daies worke towardes the charges thereof. Ri
charde
the 2. in the tenth of his raigne
, granted a Tole to bee ta
ken of wares solde by water, or by lande for 10. yeares towardes repayring of the wall and clensing of the ditch.
Thomas Fawconer Mayor 1414. caused the ditch to be clensed. Ralf Ioceline, Maior 1477. caused the whole ditch to be cast and clensed, and so from time to time it was clensed and otherwise re
formed.
In my remembrance also the same was clensed, namely the Moore ditch, when Sir Wiliam Hollies was Maior in the yeare 1540. And not long before or after, from the Tower of London, to Aldgate. It was againe clensed in the yere 1549. Henry Amcotes being Mayor,
Plentie of fish in the towne ditch.
at the charges of the companies at which time the saide ditch lay open without eyther wall or pale, hauing therein great store of very good fish of diuers sortes, as many men yet liuing who haue taken and tasted them, can well witnes: but now no such matter the charge of clensing that ditch is saued & great profit made by letting out the banks with the spoile of the whole ditch. I am not ignorant of two fifeteenes granted by a common counsell in the yeare 1595. for the reformation of this ditch, and that a smal portion thereof, to wit, betwixt Bishopsgate, and the Posterne called Moregate, was clensed and made some
what broder: but filling againe very fast, by reason of ouer raising the ground neare adioyning, therefore neuer the better: and I will so leaue it.
Of

19
Of the Bridges of this Citie.
THe originall foundation of London bridge,
Londō bridge first of timber
by report of Bartholomew Linsled, alias Fowle, last Prior of S. Marie Oueries, Church in Southwarke was this: a Ferrie being kept in place where now the Bridge is builded, at length the Ferrimar and his wife deceasing,
A fire19 ouer the Thames be
tween Lon
don
and Southwarke
left the same Ferrie to their onely daughter, a maiden named Marie, which with the goods left by her Parents, as also with the profites rising of the said Ferrie, builded a house of Sisters in place where now standeth the east part of S. Marie O
ueries
church
aboue the Quier, where she was buried, vnto the which house she gaue the ouersight and profites of the Ferrie, but afterwardes the saide house of Sisters being conuerted into a colledge of Priestes, the Priestes builded the Bridge (of Tymber)
Londō bridge builded of timber.
as all other the greate bridges of this Land were, and from time to time kept the same in good reparations, till at length considering the greate charges of repayring the same there was by aide of the Citizens of London and others a bridge builded of stone as shal be shewed.
But first of the timber bridge, the antiquity thereof being vncer
taine, but I remember to haue red, that in the yeare of Christ, 994. Sweyn king of Denmark besieging the city of London, both by water and by land, the Citizens manfully defended themselues, and their king Ethelred, so as part of their ennemies were slaine in battaile, and parte of them were drouned in the Riuer of Thames, because in their hastie rage, they tooke no heede of the Bridge.
Moreouer in the yeare 1016. Canute the Dane with a greate nauie came vp to London, and on the south of the Thames, cau
sed a Trench to bee cast, through the which his ships were towed into the west side of the bridge, and then with a deepe Trench and streight siege he compassed the citie round aboute.
Also in the yeare 1052. Earle Godwin with the like nauie, taking his course vp the Riuer of Thames, and finding none that
offe-
C2

20
Of London bridge and other in this Citie.
offered to resist on the bridge, he sayled vp by the southside of the said riuer. Furthermore aboute the yeare 1067. Wiliam the Con
queror
in his Charter, to the church of S. Peter at westmin
ster
, confirmed to the Monkes seruing God there, a gate in Lon
don
, then called Buttolphes gate, with a wharfe which was at the heade of London bridge.
Man went d20ryshod vnder Londō bridge Liber barmond.
We read likewise that in the yeare 1114. the 14. of Henry the first, the riuer of Thames was so dried vp, and such want of water there was that betwéene the Tower of London, and the bridge, and vnder the bridge, not one
ly with horse, but also a greate number of men, woemen and children, did wade ouer on foote. In the yeare 1122. the 22. of Henry the first. Thomas Arden gaue to the Monkes of Bar
mondsey
, the church of S. George in Southwarke, and v.s̃.rent by the yere, out of the land perteyning to London bridge, I also haue seene a Charter vnder seale to the effect following. Hen
ry king of England
to Ralfe B. of Chichester. and all the Mi
nisters of Sussex sendeth greeting, know ye &c. I commande by my kingly authority that the Mannor called Alcestone, which my Father gaue with other Landes, to the Abbey of Battle, be free and quiete from shieres and hundredes, and all other Customes of earthly seruitude, as my father helde the same, most freely and quietely, and namely from the worke of London bridge, and the worke of the Castle at Penansey: and this I command vpon my forfeyture, witnesse VVilliam de Pontlearche at Byrry
, the which Charter with the Scale very fayre remaineth in the custody of Ioseph Holland Gentle
man.
In the yeare 1136. the first of king Stephen,
Liber barmond. Liber trinitate.
a fire began, in the house of one Ailewarde, neare vnto Londonstone which consumed east to Aldgate and west to S. Erkenwals shrine, in Powles Church: the bridge of timber ouer the riuer of Thames, was also burnt, &c but afterwards againe repayred. For Fitzste
phen
writeth that in the raigne of king Stephen and of Henry the second, when pastimes were shewed on the riuer of Thames, men stoode in greate numbers on the bridge, wharfes, and hou
ses to beholde.
Now in the yeare 1163. the same bridge was not onely re
payred

21
London Bridge and other.
payred, but new made of Timber as afore by Peter of Cole
church
, Priest and Chaplaine.
Thus much for the olde timber bridge maintainde partly by the proper landes thereof, and partly by the liberality of diuers persons 215. yeares before the bridge of stone was finished.
Now touching the foundation of the stone bridge,
Londō bridge of stone foun
ded.
it followeth thus. Aboute the yeare 1176. the stone bridge ouer the riuer of Thames, at London, was begunne to be founded by the foresaide Peter of ColeChurch, neare vnto the bridge of timber, but some what more towardes the west, for I reade that Buttolfe wharfe was in the Conquerors time, at the head of London bridge. The king assisted this worke: A Cardinal then being Legate here,
Liber wauerley.
and Richard Archbishop of Canterbury, gaue one thousand markes, towardes the foundation, the course of the riuer for the time was turned an other way aboute by a Trench cast for that purpose be
ginning as is supposed East, aboute Rodriffe, and ending in the West about Patricksey now tearmed Batersey, this worke, to wit, the Arches and stone bridge ouer the riuer of Thames, at London, hauing beene 33. yeares in building
Londō bridge 33. yeares in building.
was in the yeare, 1209. finished by the worthy Marchants of London, Serle Mer
cer
, Wiliam Almaine, and Benedict Botewrite, principall maisters of that worke, for Peter of Cole Church deceased foure yeares before this worke was finished, and was buried in the Chappell builded on the same bridge in the yeare 1205.
King Iohn gaue certaine voide places in London to builde vp
pon, the profites thereof to remaine towardes the charges of buil
ding and repayring of the same bridge: a Mason being maister workemam of the bridge, builded from the foundation, the Chaple on London bridge, of his owne proper expences, it was indowed for two Priestes, foure Clarkes and other. There was also a Chantrie for Iohn Hatfielde &c. So that in the yeare 23. of Henry the 6. there was 4. Chaplens in the saide chappell, after that example sundry houses were thereupon shortly after erected, the first action on this bridge was lamentable, for within 3. yeres after the finishing thereof, to wit, in the yeare 1212. on the 10. of Iuly at night, a maruelous terrible chance happened, for the citie of London vpon the south side of the riuer of Thames as also the
church
C3

22
London bridge and other.
church of our Ladie of the Canons in Southwarke being on fire,
Liber dunmew. Gualter Co
uent.
and an exceeding greate multitude of people passing the bridge,
VV. packenton, London bridg perished with Fire.
eyther to extinguish and quench it, or els to gaze at and behold it, suddenly the north part, by blowing of the south winde was also set on fire, and the people which were euen now passing the bridge, perceiuing the same, woulde haue returned, but were stopped by fire, and it came to passe, that as they stayed, or protracted time, the other ende of the bridge also, namely the South ende, was fired, so that the people thronging themselues betwéene the two fires, did nothing else but expect present death: then came there to aide them many ships and vessels, into the which the multitude so vnadui
sedly rushed that the ships being drowned, they al perished: it was said that through the fire and shipwracke there were destroyed a
bout thrée thousand persons whose bodies were found in parte, or halfe burned, besides those that were wholy burnt to ashes, and could not be found. Aboute the yeare 1282. through a greate frost and deepe snow, 5. Arches of London bridge, were borne downe
5. Arches of London bridg borne downe
and carried away. In the yeare 1289. the bridge was so sore decayed, for want of reparations, that men were a
fraid to passe thereon, and a Subsidy was graunted towardes the amendement thereof, Sir Iohn Britaine being Custos of Lon
don
. In the yeare 1395. on S. Georges day , was a greate iusting on London bridge, betwixt Dauid Earle Craforde of Scotland, and the Lorde VVels of England: in the which, the Lord VVels was at the third course borne out of the saddle, which historie prooueth, that at that time the bridge being coaped on ey
ther side was not replenished with houses builded thereupon, as since it hath beene and now is. The next yeare on the 13. of Nouember , the young Queene Isabell, commonly called the little, for she was but 8. yeares olde, was conueyed from Kening
ton
besides Lamhith, through Southwarke to the Tower of London, and such a multitude of people went out to see her, that on London bridge. 9. persons were crowded to death,
9. persons crowded to death on Lon
don bridge
Tower on London bridg builded.
of whome the Prior of Tiptre a place in Essex was one, and a Matron on Cornhil was an other. The Tower on London bridge, at the north ende of the draw bridge, for that bridge was then readily to be drawne vp, aswell to giue passage for ships to Queene hith, as
for

23
Of London bridge and other.
for the resistance of any forraigne force, was begunne to bee buil
ded in the yeare 1426. Iohn Reinwell being Maior.
An other tower there is on the saide Bridge ouer the gate at the South end towards Southwarke, whereof in an other place shalbe spoken.
In the yeare 1481. an house called the common stage on London bridge fell downe
An house on Londō bridge fel down.
into the Thames: through the fall whereof 5. men were drouned: to conclude I affirme of this bridge ouer the saide riuer of Thames, as in other my descriptions, that it is a worke very rare, hauing with the drawe bridge, 20. Arches made of squared stone, of height 60. foote, and in breadth 30. foote distant, one from an other, 20. foote, compact and ioy
ned together with vaultes and sellers: vpon both sides bee houses builded, so that it seemeth rather a continuall streete then a bridge for the continuall fortifying, whereof against the incessant assaults of the riuer, it hath ouerseers and Officers, vz.
Fleete bridge in the west without Ludgate, a bridge of stone faire coaped, on eyther side with iron piked, on the which towards the south be also certaine Lanthornes of stone, for lightes to bee placed in the winter eueninges, for commodity of trauellers. Under this bridge runneth a water sometimes called (as I haue said) the riuer of the VVels, since Turnemill brooke, now Fleete dike, because it runneth by the Fleete, and so vnder Fleete bridge, in
to the riuer of Thames. This bridge hath beene far greater in times past, but hath beene lessened, as the water course hath béene narrowed. It seemeth, this last bridge to bee made at the char
ges of Iohn VVels Mayor in the yeare, 1431. for on the coping is engrauen Wels imbraced by Angels, like as on the Standarde in Cheape, which he also builded: thus much of the Bridge: for of the water course and decay thereof I haue spoken in an other place.
Oldebourne bridge ouer the saide riuer of the VVels more towardes the North was so called, of a Bourne that sometimes ranne downe Oldborne hill into the saide Riuer, this bridge of stone like as Fleet bridge, from Ludgate west, serueth for passen
gers with carriage or otherwise from Newgate toward the west and by North.
Cow-
C4

24
Bridges in London.
Cowbridge more north ouer the same water by Cowbridge streete or Cowlane: this bridge being lately decayed, an other of timber is made, somewhat more North, by Chicke lane, &c.
Bridges ouer the Towne ditch,
Bridge ouer the town ditch
there are diuers: to weete without Aldgate, without Bishopsgate, the Posterne called Moregate, the Posterne of Cripplegate without Aldersgate, the Posterne of Christes Hospitall, Newgate and Ludgate, all these be ouer paued likewise with stone leauell with the streetes. But one other there is of Timber ouer the riuer of wels, or Fleete dike betweene the precinct of the Blacke Friers, and the house of Bridewel.
There haue been, of old time also diuers bridges in sondrie pla
ces, ouer the course of Walbrooke.
Bridges ouer the course of Walbrooke.
I read that euery person ha
uing landes on eyther side of the saide walbrooke, should vaulte, or bridge, and clense the same so farre as his landes extended. The 11. of Edwarde the thirde, the inhabitantes vpon the course of this Brooke were forced to pile and wall the sides thereof. In the thirde of Henry the fift, this watercourse hauing had many brid
ges, (as ye haue hearde) I haue reade of one by the name of Hor
shew bridge
, by the Church of S. Iohn Baptist now called S. Iohns vpon walbrooke, which hath béene since vaulted ouer with bricke, and the Streetes and Lanes where through it passed so pa
ued, that the same watercourse or brooke is now hardly discerned. Order was taken the 2. of Edwaarde the fourth, that such as had ground on eyther side of walbrooke, shoulde vaulte and paue
Walbrooke vaulted and paued.
it ouer so farre as his grounde extended. And thus much for Bridges may suffice.
Gates

25
Gates in the wall of this Citie.
GAtes
Gates of Lon
don
4 north, south, east and west.
in the wall of this Citie of olde time were 4 to wit, Aldgate for the east, Al
dersgate
for the North, Ludgate for the West, and the Bridgegate ouer the ri
uer of Thames, for the South, but of la
ter times for the ease of the Citizens and Passengers, diuers other gates and Po
sterns
haue beene made as shalbe shewed. In the raigne of Henry the second (saith Fitzstephen) there were seuen double gates in the wall of this Citie, but he nameth them not. It may be supposed he ment for the first, the gate next to the Tower of London, which then serued as a Posterne for Passengers out of the East: from thence through Towerstreete, Eastcheape, and Candleweekestrete, to Londonstone, the midle point of that high way: then through Budgerow, watheling
streete
, and leauing Paules Church on the right hand, to Lud
gate
in the west, the next be Aldgate, Bishopsgate, Criplegate, Aldersgate, Ludgate, and the Bridgegate, ouer the Thames. Since the which time hath been builded Newgate, the Posterne called Moregate, a Posterne from Christeshospital, towardes S. Bartelmewes Hospitall in Smithfielde &c. Of euery of these gates and Posterns as also of certeine watergates seueral
ly somewhat may bée noted, as I finde authority to warrant mee.
The first was the Posterne gate next vnto the Tower of Lon
don
Posterne by the Tower of London.
which at the length fell downe in the yeare 1440. the 18. of Henry the 6. and was neuer reedified againe of stone, but an homely cotage with a narrow passage made of timber, lath, and loame: hath beene in place thereof set vp, and so remaineth. The ruine of the saide Posterne began in the yeare 1190. the second of Richarde the first, william Longshampe Bishop of Ely and Chauncelor of England, caused a part of the city wal, to wit, from the saide gate towardes the riuer of Thames to bee broken down for the enlarging of the Tower, which Tower he compassed far
wide
C5

26
Gates of this Citie.
wide aboute with a wal, and is now the vtter wal of the Tower, he also caused a broade and deepe ditch to bee made without the same wal, intending to haue deriued the riuer of Thames, to haue flowed aboute it. By meanes of this ditch the foundation of that gate being loosed and greately weakened, fell at the length, as yée haue hearde and so remaineth.
The next in the East in Aldgate of olde time so called of the an
tiquitie or age thereof. It appeareth by a Charter of king Ed
gar
to the Knightes of Kinghtone Guilde, that in his dayes the said Porte was called Aldgate. Also Matilde the Queene, wife to Henry the first, in the eight yere of his raigne, hauing foun
ded the Priorie of the Holy Trinitie within Aldegate, gaue vnto the same church, to Norman the first Prior, and the Canons that deuoutlie serued God therein, the Porte of Aldegate, & the Soke or
Soke or Court
Franchise thereunto belonging with al customs, as free as shee held the same, &c. In the which Charter, shee nameth the house Christes church, and reporteth Aldegate to bée of her demaine. The next towards the north, is called Bishopsgate, for that, as it may be supposed, the same was first builded by some Bishoppe of London, the certaynty whereof is vnknown, but true it is that this gate was first builded for the ease of the passengers towards the East and by North, as into Norfolke, Suffolke, Cambridge
shire
, &c. The Trauellers into which parts before the building of this gate were forced, passing out at Aldegate, to goe east till they came to the Miles end, & then to turne on the left hand to Ble
thenhal green
now called Bednal greene, to Cambridge heath, and so North, or East and by North, as their Iourney lay. If they tooke not this way, by the East out at Aldgate, they must take their way by the North out at Aldersgate through Alders
gate streete
, and Goswelstreete towards Iseldon, and by a crosse of stone on their right hand, set vp for a marke by the North ende of Golding lane to turne Eastwarde through a long streete vntill this day called Aldestreete, to an other crosse standing, where now standeth a Smithes Forge by Sewers ditch church, and then to turne againe North towardes Totenham, Endfield, Waltham, Ware, &c. The eldest note that I reade of this Bishopsgate, is that wiliam Blund one of the Sheriffes of London in the yeare,
Liber trinitati.
1210

27
Gates of this Citie.
1210. solde to Serle Mercer, and VVilliam Almaine, procu
rators, or Wardens, of London bridge, all his land with the garden, in the Parish of S. Buttolph without Bishopsgate, betweene the land of Richard Casiarin towards the north, and the lande of Robert Crispie towardes the South, and the high way called Bearewardes lane
Bishopsgate streete with
out, of old time called Bearewardes lane.
on the East &c. Next I reade in a Charter
Charter.
dated the yere 1235. that Walter Brune Citizen of London, and Rosia his wife founded the Priorie or new Hospital of our blessed Lady, since called S. Mary Spittle, without Bishops
gate
, for Canons regular the 19. of Henry the thirde. Also in the yeare 1247. Simon Fitzmarie, one of the Sherifes of London, the 29. of H. the thirde, founded the Hospitall of S. Marie,
Recorde.
called Bethlem without Bishopsgate. Thus much for Antiquitie, now for repayring of this gate. I find, that Henry the thirde graun
ted or confirmed to the Marchantes of the Haunce,
Liber cu
stome, London.
that had an house in the citie called Guildhalla Theutonicorum, certaine Liberties and Priuiledges. Edwarde the first also confirmed the same. In the 10. yeare of whose raigne, it was founde that the saide Marchantes ought of right to repayre the saide gate cal
led Bishopsgate. Whereupon Gerarde Marbod, Alderman of the Haunce and other, then remayning in the Citie of London: for themselues, and al others Marchants of the saide hance, granted, 210. markes sterling to the Maior and Citizens. And couenanted that they and their successors should from time to time repayre the same gate.
Bishopsgate repared by the Marchants of the Haunce Bishopsgate was builded.
This gate was againe beutifully builded in the yere 1479. in the raigne of Edwarde the 4. by the saide Haunce Marchantes: Moreo21uer aboute the yeare 1551. these Haunce Marchantes hauing prepared stone for that purpose, caused a new gate to be framed, there to haue beene set vp, but then their. Li
berties through suite of our English Marchantes, were seazed in
to the Kings hand, and so that worke was stayed, and the olde gate yet remaineth.
Touching the next Posterne, called Moregate,
Bishopsgate, prouided to haue beene new builded Posterne, called Moore
gate
.
I finde that Thomas Faulconer Maior, aboute the yeare one thousande foure hundred and fifeteene, the third of Henry the fifte, caused the wall of the Citie to bee broken neare vnto Colemanstreete
and

28
Gates of this Citie.
and there builded a Posterne, now called Moregate, vppon the Moore side where was neuer gate before. This gate he made for ease of the Citizens, that way to passe vppon causewaies into the fielde, for their recreation: For the same fielde was at that time a Marrish. This Posterne was reedified by Wil
liam Hampton
Fishmonger Maior, in the yeare 1472. In the yeare also, 1511. the thirde of Henry the eight. Roger A
chely
Maior, caused Dikes and Bridges to bee made, and the ground to bee leuiled, and made more commodious for passage since which time the same hath beene heighthened. So much that the Ditches and Bridges are couered, and if it bee made le
uill with the Battlementes of the Citie wall: yet will it bee lit
tle the drier, such is the Moorish nature of the grounde. The next is the Posterne of Cripplegate
posterne of Criplegate. Abba Florien
sis. Burcharde.
so called long before the Conquest. For I reade in the Historie of Edmonde King of the East Angles, written by Abba Floriacensis, & by Burchard sometime Secretarie to Offa king of Marcia. That in the yeare 1010. The Danes spoiling the kingdom of the East Angles, Alwyne Bishop of Helmeham, caused the bodie of king Edmonde the Martir to bee brought from Bedrisworth, (now called Bury S. Edmondes) through the kingdome of the East Saxons, and so to London in at Cripplegate, a place (saith mine Author) so called of Criples begging there: at which gate, (it was saide) the bodie entering, miracles were wrought, as some of the Lame did goe vpright, praising God. The bodie of King Edmond rested for the space of three yeares in the Parrish church of Saint Gregorie, neare vnto the Cathe
drall Church of Saint Paule
. Moreouer the Charter of William the Conqueror, confirming the foundation of the Colledge in London called S. Martin the greate, hath these wordes. I doe geue and graunt to the same Church and Cannons, seruing God therein. All the lande and the Moore without the Posterne, which is called Cripplegate, on eyther parte of the Posterne.
Liber S Bar
tilmew.
Besides this Alfune builded the parrish church of S. Giles nigh a gate of the citie called Porta contractorum , or Criplesgate about the yeare 1090.
This

29
Gates of this Citie.
This Posterne was sometime a prison, wherevnto such Citti
zens and others, as were arrested for debt,
Criplesgate a prison for trespassors.
or common trespasses were committed, as they be now to the Compters, which thing appeareth by a writte of Edward the first in these wordes: Rex vic. London, salutem: ex graui querela B. capt. & detent. in prisona nostra de Criples gate pro x.£,
Record.
quas colam Radul
pho de Sandwico tunc custod, Ciuitatis nostræ London, & I. de Blackwell ciuis recognit. debit. &c
. This gate was new builded by the Brewers of London in the yeare 1244. as saith Fabians Manscript.
Criplesgate new builded.
Edmond Shaw Goldsmith, Mayor, in the yeare 1483. at his decease appoynted by his testament his executors, with the cost of 400. Markes, and the stuffe of the olde gate, called Criples gate, to builde the same gate of new, which was performed and done, in the yeare 1491. The next is Aldresgate or Aldersgate,
Aldersgate.
so called not of Aldrich, or of Elders, that is to say, auncient men, builders thereof,
Beware the Cat.
nor of Eldarne trées growing there more aboun
dantly, then in other places, as some haue fabuled, but for the very antiquitie of the gate it selfe, as being one of the first foure gates of the cittie, and seruing for the Northerne partes, as Aldegate did for the East, which two gates being both old gates, are for dif
ference sake called, the one Aldegate, and the other Aldergate. This gate hath at sundry times béene increased with buildinges, namely, on the south or innerside, a great frame of timber hath béene added and set vp, contayning diuers large roomes, and lodge
inges: also on the East side, is the addition of one great building of timber, with one large floore paued with stone, or tile, and a Well therein curbed with stone, of a great depth, and rysing into the said roome, which is two stories high from the ground: which Well is the onely peculiar note belonging to that gate, for I haue not séene the like in all this Cittie, to be raysed so high. Iohn Day Stationer, a late famous printer of many good bookes, in our time dwelled in this gate, and builded much vpon the wall of the cittie towards the parish Church of Saint Anne. Then is there also a Posterne gate made out of the wall on the North side of the late dissolued cloyster of Friers minors, commonly of their habite cal
led Gray Friers, now Christes Church, and Hospitall.
A Postern out of Christes Hospitall,
This Po
sternee

30
Gates of this Citie.
sterne was made in the sixt yeare of Edward the sixt, to passe from the said Hospitall of Christes Church, vnto the Hospitall of Saint Bartlemew in Smithfield.
The next gate on the west, and by North, is termed Newgate, as latelier builded then the rest. This gate was first erected about the raigne of Henry the second, or Richard the first, vpon this occasion. The Cathedrall Church of Saint Paule, being burnt about the yeare 1086. in the raigne of VVilliam the Conque
ror
, Mauritius then Bishoppe of London, rapayred not the olde church, as some haue supposed, but began the foundation of a new worke, such as men then iudged would neuer haue béene perfor
med, it was to them so wonderfull for height, length, and breadth, as also in respect it was raysed vppon arches or vaults, &c. After Mauritius, Richard Beamore did wonderfully aduance the work of the said Church, purchasing the large stréetes, and lanes round about, wherein were wont to dwell many lay people, which grounds he began to compasse about with a strong wall of stone, and gates. By meanes of this increase of the Church territo
rie, but more by inclosing of grounde, for so large a cemitorie, or church yarde: the high and large stréete stretching from Aldegate in the East, vntill Ludgate in the West, was in this place so crossed and stopped vp, that the carriage through the cittie West
warde, was forced to passe without the saide churchyarde wall on the North side, through Pater noster row: and then south down Aue Mary lane, and againe West through Bowiar row to Lud
gate
: or else out of Chepe, or Wathelingstreet to turne South through the old Exchaunge, then West through Carter lane: a
gaine North vp Créede lane, and then West to Ludgate. Which passage, by reason of so often turning, was very combersome, and daungerous both for horse and man.
Newgate first builded, and the cause why.
For remedie whereof, a new gate was made, and so called, by which men and cattell with all manner of carriages, might passe more directly (as afore) from Aldegate, through West Cheape by Paules on the North side, through Saint Nicholas Shambles, and Newgate market to Newgate, and from thence to any part Westwarde ouer Old
borne
bridge
, or turning without the gate into Smithfielde, and through Iseldon to any part North and by West. This gate
hath

31
Gates of this Citie.
hath of long time béene a Gayle,
Close role. Newgate a i22ayle or pri
son house. The king re
payred it.
or prison, for fellons and trespas
sors, as appeareth by records in the raigne of King Iohn , of which amongst other I find one testifying that in the yeare 1218. The third of King Henry the thirde, the King writeth vnto the She
riffes of London, commaunding them to repaire the Gaile of Newgate, for the safe keeping of his prisoners, and that the char
ges which they should lay out, should be allowed vnto them vpon their accompt in the Exchequer. Moreouer in the yeare 1241. the Iewes of Norwich were hanged for circumcising a Christian childe, their house called the Thor, was pulled downe and destroi
ed, Aron the sonne of Abraham a Iew, at London, and the other Iewes were constrained to pay twentie thousand markes at two termes in the year, or els to be kept perpetuall prisoners in New
gate
of London and in other prisons. 1255. King Henry the thirde lodging in the Tower of London, vppon displeasure con
ceyued towards the Cittie of London, for the escape of Iohn Of
frem
a prisoner being a Clearke conuict, out of Newgate, which had killed a Prior that was of alliance to the King, as cosen to the Queene, he sent for the Mayor and Sheriffes to come before him, to aunswere the matter: the Mayor laid the fault from him to the Sheriffes,
The Shiriffes of London prisoners in the Tower for escape of a prisoner out of Newgate.
forsomuch as to them belonged the keeping of all pri
soners within the cittie, and so the Mayor returned home, but the Sheriffes remayned there prisoners, by the space of one Moneth and more, and yet they excused themselues in that the fault chiefly rested in the Bishops Officers: for whereas the prisoner was vn
der custodie, they at his request had graunted licence to imprison the offendor within the Gaile of Newgate, but so as the Bishops Officers were charged to sée him safely kept. The King not
withstanding all this, demanded of the cittie 3000. markes for a fine. In the yeare 1326. Robert Baldoke, the kinges Chan
cellor was put in Newgate.
The kinges Chauncellor prisoner in New gate.
In the yeare 1337. S. Iohn Poult
ney
gaue foure markes by the yeare, to the reliefe of prisoners in Newgate. In the yeare 1385. William Wallwoorth gaue som
what to relieue the prisoners in Newgate so haue manie others since also. In the yeare 1414. the Gaylors of Newgate and Lud
gate
dyed, and prisoners in Newgate to the number of 64. In the 1418. The Parson of Wrotham in Kent was imprisoned in
32
Gates of this Citie.
Newgate. The yeare 1422. the first of Henry the sixt, licence was granted to Iohn Couentre, Ianken Carpenter, and Wil
liam Greue
,
Newgate new builded.
executors to Richard Whittington, to reedifie the Gaile of Newgate, which they did with his goodes. Lastly Tho
mas Knowles
Mayor, by licence of Reynold Prior of S. Bartle
mewes
, in Smithfield, and also of Iohn Wakering Mayster of the Hospitall of S. Bartlemewe, and his brethren, conueyed the waste of water at the cesterne néere to the common fountaine and Chappell of S. Nicholas, (situate by the saide Hospitall) to the Gailes of Newgate, and Ludgate, for reliefe of the prisoners, and this may suffice for Newgate.
Ludgate in the West is the next, and is called Ludgate as first builded (saith Geffrey Monmouth) by King Lud a Briton, about the yeare before Christes natiuitie 66 Of which building, and also of the name, as Ludsgate, or Fluds gate, hath béene of late some question amongst the learned, wherefore I ouer passe it, as not to my purpose, onely referring the reader to that I haue before written, out of Cesars commentaries, and other Romaine writers concerning a towne or Cittie amongst the Britaines. This gate I suppose to be one of the most auncient: and as Ald
gate
was builded for the East, so was this Luds gate for the west. I reade as I tolde you that in the yeare 1215. The 17. of King Iohn the Barons of the Realme, being in armes against the King entred this Citie, and spoyled the Iewes houses, to fill their owne purses which being done, Robert Fitzwater, and Geffrey de Magna villa Earle of Essex, and the Earle of Gloucester chiefe leaders of the Army, applyed all diligence to repayre the gates and walles of this Citie, with the stones of the Iewes broken houses, especially (as it séemeth) they then repayred or rather new builded Ludgate.
Ludgate new builded.
For in the yeare 1586. when the same gate was ta
ken down to be newe builded, there was found couched within the wall thereof, a stone taken from one of the Iewes houses, where
in was ingrauen in Hebrewe Caracters these wordes following, הך מצב הר משה בן הרב ר יצחק
Iewes houses spoiled.
Hæc est statio Rabbi Moses, fillj23 insignis Rabbi Isaac : which is to say, this is the Sta
tion, or Ward of Rabby Moses, the sonne of the honorable Rab
by Isaac
, and had béene fixed vppon the front of one of the Iewes
houses

33
Gates of this Citie.
houses as a note, or signe that such a one dwelled there. In the yeare 1260. this Ludgate was repaired and beautified with ima
ges of Lud and other Kinges, as appeareth by letters pattents
Patent.
in the Tower, of licence giuen to the cittizens of London, to take vp stone for the making of those images, dated the 45. of Henry the third. These images of Kinges in the raigne of Edward the sixt had their heads smitten off, and were otherwise defaced, by vnad
uised folkes, and in the raigne of Quéene Marie were repayred, as by setting new heads on their old bodies, &c. All which so remay
ned vntil the year 1586.
Ludgate again new builded.
The 28. of Quéen Elizabeth , when the same gate being sore decayed was clean taken down, the prisoners in the meane time remayning in the large Southeast quadrant to the same Gate adioyning, and the same yeare, the whole gate was newly and beautifully builded with the images of Lud, & others, as afore, on the East side, and the picture of her Maiestie,
Ludgate in
larged in the raigne of H. the sixt. 24
Quéene Eilzabeth on the West side.
Al which was done at the common charges of yͤ cittizens, amoū
ting to 1500. £. or more.
Ludgate a free prison.
This gate was made a frée prison in the yeare 1378. the first of Richard the second
Record Guild. hall.
, Nicholas Brem
bar
being Mayor. The same was confirmed in the yeare 1382. Iohn Northampton being Mayor, by a common counsaile in the Guild hall: by which it was ordayned that all frée men of this Cittie should for debt, trespasses, accomptes, and contempts, bee imprisoned in Ludgate, and for treasons, fellonies, and other cri
minall offences be committed to Newgate. &c. In the yeare 1439 the tenth of King Henry the sixt25, Iohn Welles being Mayor, & court of common counsaile established ordinanances, (as William Standon & Robert Chicheley, late Maiors before had done) tou
ching the garde and gouernment of Ludgate, and other prisons.
Also in the yeare 1463. the third of Edward the fourth, Ma
thew Philip
being Mayor, in a common counsaile, at the request of the well disposed, blessed, and deuout woman, Dame Agnes For
ster
, widow, late wife to Stephen Forster Fishemonger, some
time Mayor, for the comfort and reliefe of all the poore prisoners, certaine Articles were established. Inprimis, that the new works then late edified by the same Dame Agnes, for the inlarging of the prison of Ludgate, from thenceforth should be had and taken,
as
D

34
Gates of this Citie.
as a parte and parcell of the saide prison of Ludgate, so that both the olde and new worke of Ludgate aforesaid, be one prison, gaile, kéeping, and charge for euermore.
The saide Quadrant strongly builded of stone, by the before named Stephen Forster, and Agnes his wife, contayneth a large walking place by grounde, the like roome it hath ouer it for lodg
ings, and ouer all a fayre leades to walke vpon, well imbattayled, all for ease of prisoners, to the end they shoulde haue lodging and water frée without charge: as by certaine verses grauen in Cop
per, & fixed on the said Quadrant, I haue read in forme following.
Old verses on Ludgate.
Deuout soules that passe this way,
for Stephen Forster late Mayor, hartely pray,
And Dame Agnes his spouse, to God consecrate,
that of pitty this house made for Lōdoners in Ludgate.
So that for lodging and water prisoners here nought pay,
as their keepers shal answere at dreadfull domes day.
This plate, and one other of his Armes, taken downe with the old gate, I caused to be fixed ouer the entrie of the said Quadrant, but the verses being vnhappily turned inward to the wall, the like in effect is grauen outwarde in prose, declaring him to bee a Fish
monger, because some vpon a light occasion (as a maydens heade in a glasse window) had fabuled him to bee a Mercer, and to haue begged there at Ludgate, &c. Thus much for Ludgate.
Next this, is there a breach in the wal of the Citie,
A breach in the wal against Bridewell.
and a bridge of timber ouer the Fleet dike, betwixt Fléet-bridge and Thames, directly ouer against the house of Bridewel.
Of the water gates of name, on the banke of the riuer of Thames. The first from the West towardes the East, is called Ripa Reginæ, the Quéens bank, or Quéene Hith,
Watergates Queenes hith
which may wel be accounted a water gate, & the very chief of this citie, being a com
mon strand or landing place, yet equal with, & of old time as far ex
celling Belins gate, as shalbe shewed in the ward of Quéene Hith.
The next is Downe gate, so called (as may be supposed) of the sodaine descending, or downe going of that way from S. Iohns Church vpon Walbrooke vnto the Riuer of Thames, whereby the water in the channell there hath such aswift course, that in the
yeare

35
Gates of this Citie.
yeare 1574. on the fourth of September after a strong shower of rayne, a lad (of the age of 18. yeares)
A lad of 18. yeares old. drowned in a channell at downegate.
minding to haue leapt ouer the channell, was taken by the féete and borne downe with the vi
olence of that narrow streame, and carryed towarde the Thames with such a violent swiftnesse, as no man could rescue or stay him, till he came against a cart whéele, that stood in the water gate, be
fore which time he was drowned, and starke dead.
This was sometime a large water gate, frequented of shippes and other vessels, like as the Quéene Hith, and was a part there
of, as doth appeare by an Inquisition made in the 28. yeare of Henry the third, wherein was founde, that aswell corne as fish and all other things comming to the Port of Downe gate, were to bee ordered after the customes of the Quéenes Hith, for the kings vse, as also that the corne arriuing betwéene the gate of the Guildhall of the Marchants of Cullen: the (Styleyarde) which is East from Downe gate, and the house then pertayning to the Archbishoppe of Canterbury, West from Baynards castle, was to be measured by the measure and measurer of the Quéenes soke, or Quéene Hith.
Marchants of the Haunce, landed their corne betwixt their house, & the Black friers
I reade also in the 19. of Edward the thirde, that customes were then to be payde for shippes and other vessels resting at Downe gate, as if they roade at Quéene Hith, and as they now doe a Belingsgate. And thus much for Downe gate may suffice.
The next after Downgate (of old time) was called Wolses gate
Wolses gate in the Roperie. Liber Horn Liber S, Albon
in the reperie in the parish of Alhallowes the lesse, of later time called Wolses lane, but now out of vse: for the lower parte was builded on by the Earle of Shrewsburie, and the other part was stopped vp, and builded on by the Chamberlaine of London.
The next is Ebgate,
Ebgate Liber trinitate, Liber S, Albon Record E. the 3.
a Watergate, so called of old time, as ap
peareth by diuers records of tenements néere vnto the same adioy
ning. It standeth neare vnto the Church of S. Laurence Pount
ney
, but is within the parish of S. Marten Ordegare. In place of this gate is now a narrow passage to the Thames, and is called Ebgate lane, but more commonly the Old Swanne.
Then is there a water gate at the Bridge foote, called Oyster gate,
Oystergate
of Oysters that were there of old time commonly to be sold, and was the chiefest market for them, and for other shell fishes
There
D2

36
Gates of this Citie.
There standeth now an engine, or forcier, for the winding vp of ter 26 to serue the citie, whereof I haue already spoken.
The next is the Bridge gate,
Bridge gate.
so called of London Bridge whereon it standeth: This is one of the foure first and principall gates of the citie, and was long before the conquest, when there stood a Bridge of timber: which Gate being weakely made, when the bridge was builded of stone, hath béene often times since repay
red. This gate with the Tower vpon it, in the 1436. fell down, & two of the farthest Arches Southwards also fell therewith, and no man perished or was hurt therewith. To the repayring where
of, diuers welthy cittizens gaue large summes of money, namely Robert Large, sometime Mayor, gaue to that work 100. marks, Stephen Forster 20. l. S. Iohn Crosby Alderman 100. l. &c. But in the yeare 1471.
W. Dunthorne
the Kentish Mariners vnder the conduct of Bastard Fauconbridge, burned the said Gate, and xiij.honses 27 on the Bridge, besides the Béere houses at S. Katherines, and many other in the suburbes.
The next is Buttolphes gate,
Buttolphes gate.
so called of the parish Church of S. Buttolph néere adioyning. This gate was sometime giuen, or confirmed by William Conqueror, to the Monkes of West
minster
in these wordes: W. Rex Angliæ &c. William King of England, sendeth gréeting to the Sheriffes & all his ministers, as also to all his louing subiects, French and English of London, Know ye that I haue granted to God, and S. Peter of Westmin
ster
, & to the Abbot Vitalis, the gift which Almundus of the port of S. Buttolph gaue them, when he was there made Monke: that is to say, his Lords court with the houses, and one Wharfe, which is at the head of London bridge, and all other his landes which he had in the same citie, in such sort as King Edward more benefici
ally, and amply granted the same: and I will and command, that they shall inioy the same well and quietly and honourably with
sake, and soke &c.
The next is Belingsgate nowe vsed as an especiall Porte or harborow, for small shippes and boates comming thereto, and is now the largest water gate on the Riuer of Thames, and there
fore most frequented, the Quéenes Hith being almost forsaken. Now this Gate tooke that name, or of what antiquity the same is,
I

37
Towers and Castels.
must leaue vncertaine, as not hauing read any auncient recorde thereof, more then that Geffrey Monmouth writeth, that Belin a King of the Britans, about 400. yeares before Christes nati
uitie
builded this gate, and named it Belins gate, after his owne calling: and that when he was dead, his bodie being burned, the ashes in a vessell of brasse, were set vpon a high pinacle of stone o
uer the same Gate. But Cesar, and other the Romaine writers, affirme of citties, walles, and gates, as ye haue before heard, and therefore it séemeth to me not to be so auncient, but rather to haue taken that name of some later owner of the place, happily named Belin, as Somars Key, Smarts Key, Froth wharfe, and others thereby tooke their names of their owners: of this gate more shall be saide when we come to Belins Gate warde.
Then haue you a Water gate on the West side of Woolle wharfe, or Customers Key, which is now of late most beautifully enlarged and built, This gate is commonly called the Water
gate
, as being at the South end of Water lane.
One other Water gate there is by the Bulwark of the Tow
er
,
Watergate by the Tower.
and this is the last and farthest water gate Eastward, on the Riuer of Thames, so farre as the cittie of London extendeth with
in the walles: both which last named water gates bee within the Tower ward.
Besides these common Water gates were diuers priuate wharfes and Keyes
Wharfes and Keyes.
all along from the East to the West of this Cittie, on the banke of the Riuer of Thames: Marchants of all nations had landing places, Ware houses, sellers and stowage of their goodes and marchandises, as partly shall bee touched in the Wardes adioyning to the said Riuer, and therefore concerning Gates let this suffice.
Of Towers and Castels.
THe Citie of London (saith Fitzstephens) hath in the East a very great & a most strong Palatine Tower,The Tower of28 London. whose turrets and walles do rise from a deep foundation, the mor
ter thereof being tempered with the blood of beastes. In the west parte are two most
strong
D3

38
Towers and Castels.
strong Castels &c. To beginne therefore with the most famous Tower of London, situate in the East, neere vnto the Riuer of Thames, it hath béene the common opinion: and some hane29 written (but of none assured ground) that Iulius Cesar, the first Conqueror of the Britaines, was the originall Author, and foun
der aswell thereof, as also of many other Towers, castles, and great buildings within this Realme: but (as I haue alreadie be
fore noted) Cesar remayned not here so long, nor had hee in his head any such matter,
In my Annals.
but onely to dispatch a conquest of this bar
barous countrey, and to procéede to greater matters. Neyther do the Romaine writers make mention of any such buildings erected by him here. And therefore leauing this, and procéeding to more grounded authoritie, I find in a fayre register booke, of the actes of the Bishops of Rochester, set downe by Edmond of Haden
ham
, that William the first (surnamed Conquerour) builded the Tower of London, to wit, the great white and square Tower, there, about the yeare of Christ 1078. appointing Gundulph, then Bishop of Rochester, to be principall surueyer and ouersée
er30 of that worke, who was for that time lodged in the house of Edmere a Burgesse of London, the very wordes of which mine Author are these. Gundulphus Episcopus mandato Willielmi Regis magni præfuit operi magnæ Turris London. quo tem
pore hospitatus est apud quendā Edmerum Burgensem Lon
don
. qui dedit vnum were Ecclesiæ Rofen
.
This was the great square Tower, which was then builded, and hath béene since, at diuers times inlarged with other buildings adioyning, as shall be shewed hereafter.
VVilliam Malmsebery. Mathew Paris I. London, Castle by the Tower build
ed.
This Tower was by tempest of wind sore sha
ken in the yeare 1090. the fourth of William Rufus , and was a
gaine by the said Rufus and Henry the first repayred. They also caused a castle to be builded vnder the said Tower, to wéete, on the South side towardes the Thames.
Othowerus, Acolinillus, Otto, and Geffrey Earle of Essex were foure of the first Constables of this Tower of London, by succession: all which held by force a portion of lande (that pertay
ned to the Priorie of the holie Trinitie within Aldgate) that is to say, East Smithfield,
Eastsmithfield a Vineyarde.
néere vnto the Tower, making there
of a Uyneyarde, and woulde not depart from it, till the seconde
yeare

39
Towers and Castels.
yeare of King Stephen , when the same was adiudged and restored to the said Church.
Ex. Charta.
This Geffrey Magnauille was Earle of Essex, Constable of the Tower, Sheriffe of London,
Geffrey Mag
na Ville
, Earle of Essex, Con
stable of the Tower and Sheriffe of London.
Middlesex Essex, and Hertford shires, as appeareth by a Charter of Maud the Empresse, dated 1141. He also fortified the Tower of Lon
don
against King Stephen, but the King tooke him in his court at S. Albons, and would not deliuer him till hee had rendred the Tower of London, with the Castels of Walden, and Pleshey in Essex. About the yeare 1190. the second of Richard the first, William Longshampe Bishop of Elie, Chauncellor of England, for cause of dissention betwixt him and Earle Iohn
Iohn Beuer.
the Kings bro
ther, that was rebell, inclosed the Tower,
The Tower of London com
passed about with a wall & a ditch.
and castle of London, with an outward wall of stone imbattailed, and also caused a déepe ditch to be cast about the same, thinking (as I haue said before) to haue enuironed it with the Riuer of Thames. By the making of this ditch in Eastsmithfield, the Church of the holy Trinitie in London lost halfe a marke rent by the yeare, & the Mill was re
moued that belonged to the poore brethren of the Hospitall of S. Katherine,
S. Katherines mill stood where now is the Iron gate of the Tower.
and to the Church of the Trinitie aforesaid, which was no small losse and discommoditie to eyther part, and the gar
den which the King had hyred of the brethren for sixe markes the yeare, for the most part was wasted and marred by the ditch. Re
compence was often promised, but neuer performed, vntill King Edward comming after, gaue to the brethren fiue markes and a half for that part which the ditch had deuoured: and the other part thereof without, he yeelded to them againe, which they hold: and of the said rent of fiue markes and a halfe they haue a déed, by ver
tue whereof, they are well paid vntill this day.
About the yeare 1239. King Henry the third caused the To
wer of London
to be fortified with bulwarkes,
Bulwarke without the Tower build
ed.
which after they were builded fell downe, and therefore he caused it to be reedified more strongly, to his cost of more then twelue thousand markes.
In the yeare 1274. King Edward the first commaunded the Treasurer and Chamberlaine of his Exchequer, to deliuer out of his Treasorie, vnto Giles of Andwarp 200.
Record. Tower. Ditch about the Towerres payred.
markes, of the fines, taken of diuers Marchants, or vsurers of London, towardes the worke of the ditch about the Tower of London.
Edward
D4

40
Of Towers and Castels.
Edward the fourth fortified this Tower, and made if strong.
And in the yeare 1532. King Henry the eight repayred the whyte Tower.
Tower repay
red by Henry the eight,
Thus much for the foundation and building, in
crease and maintenance of this Tower. Now somewhat of acci
dents in the same.
In the year 1196.
Actions of the Tower.
William Fitzosbart, a cittizen of London seditiously mouing the common people to séeke libertie, and not to be subiect to the rich, and more mighty, at length was taken and brought before the Archbishoppe of Canterburie in the Tower,
Iustices sate in the Tower of London.
where he was by the iudges condemned, had iudgement, and was by the héeles drawne thence to the Ealmes in Smithfield, and there hanged.
In the yeare 1220. all the Plées belonging to the crowne, were holden in the Tower:
Plees of the Crowne plea
ded in the Tower.
and likewise in the yeare 1224. &c.
In the yeare 1222. the cittizens of London hauing made a tumult against the Abbot of Westminster, Hubert of Burgh, chiefe Iustice of England, came to the Tower of London, called before him the Mayor and Aldermen, of whom he enquired for the principall authors of that sedition: amongst whome one named Constantine Fitz Aelulfe auowed, that hee was the man, and had done much lesse then he ought to haue done: Wherevpon the Iustice sent him with two other to Falks de Brent, who with ar
med men, brought him to the gallowes, and there hanged him & other twaine.
In the yeare 1244. Griffith
Griffith of Wales fel from the Tower.
the eldest sonne of Leoline, prince of Wales, being kept prisoner in the Tower, deuised meanes of es
cape, and hauing in the night made of the hangings, shéetes, &c. a long line, he put himselfe downe from the toppe of the Tower, but in the slyding, the weight of his body, (being a very bigge and a fatte man) brake the rope, and he fell and brake his necke with
all.
In the yeare 1253. King Henry the thirde, imprisoned the Sheriffes of London in the Tower,
Sheriffes of London priso
ners in the Tower.
more then a moneth, for the escape of a prisoner out of Newgate.
In the yeare 1260. King Henry
K. Henry land
ed in the To
wer, and held his Parliament there.
with his Quéene (for seare of the Barons) were lodged in this Tower. The next yeare hee sent for his Lords, and held his parliament there.
In

41
Towers and Castels.
In the yeare 1263. when the Quéene would haue remoued from the Tower by water, towards VVindsore, sundry Londo
ners got them together to the bridge, vnder the which she was to passe, and not onely cryed out vpon her with reprochfull wordes, but also threw myre & stones at her, by which she was constrained to returne for the time, but in yͤ year 1265. the said Citizens were faine to submit themselues to the king for it, and the Mayor, Alder
men, & Sheriffes were sent to diuers prisons, & a Custos also was set ouer the Citie, to wit, Othon Constable of the Tower, &c.
In the yeare 1282. Leoline Prince of VVales
Leoline prince of Wales his head set on the Tower.
being taken at Blewth Castle, Roger Lestrange cut off his head, which Sir Roger Mortimer caused to be crowned with Iuie, and set it vp
on the Tower.
In the yeare 1290. diuers Iustices aswell of the Bench,
Iustices of the Bench sent to the Tower.
as of the assyses, were sent prisoners to the Tower, which with great sommes of money redéemed their libertie.
In the yeare 1320. the Kinges Iustices sate in the To
wer,
Iustices sate in the Tower.
for tryall of matters, wherevpon Iohn Gifors late Mayor of London, and many other fled the Citie for feare of things they had presumptuously done.
In the yeare 1321. the Mortimers yéelding themselues to the King, he sent them prisoners to the Tower, where they remayned long, and were adiudged to be drawne and hanged. But at length Roger Mortimer
Mortimer made an e
scape out of the Tower. Citizēs of Lōdon wrested yͤ keyes of the Tower from the Constable. Mortimer drawne from the Tower to the Elmes, & hanged
of Wigmore by giuing to his kéepers a sléepie drinke, escaped out of the Tower, and his vncle Roger being still kept there died about fiue yeares after.
In the year 1326. the Citizens of London wrested yͤ keyes of yͤ Tower out of the Constables hands, & deliuered all the prisoners.
In the yeare 1330. Roger Mortimer Earle of March was taken and bronght31 to the Tower, from whence hee was drawne to the Elmes and there hanged.
In the yeare 1344. King Edward the third commaunded Flo
rences
of gold to be made and coyned in the Tower, that is to say, a penie péece of the value of sixe shillinges and eyght pence, the half penie piece, of the value of iij.s̃>.and iiijď.and a farthing péece worth 20. pence, Perciuall de Porte of Luke being then Maister of the coyne. And this is the first coyning of Gold in the Tower,
A Mint in the Tower: Florēces of gold coi
ned there.
whereof

42
Towers and Castels.
whereof I haue read, & also the first coyning of Gold in England: for (that I may a little digresse by occasion hereof) I find that in times before passed,
Argent, and Pecunia after called Estar
ling.
all great sommes were paid by wayght of gold or siluer, as so many pounds or marks of siluer, or so many pounds or markes of Gold, as I could proue by many good authorities, which I ouerpasse. The smaller sommes also were paide in star
lings, which were pence, so called, for other coynes they had none. The antiquitie of this starling penie vsuall in this Realme, is from the raign of Henry the second: notwithstanding, the Saxon coines before the conquest were pence of fine siluer full the weight, and somewhat better then the latter starlings, as I haue tryed by con
ference of the pence of Burghrede king of Mercia, Aelfred, Ed
ward
, and Edelrod, kings of the West Sexons, Plegmond Arch
bishop of Canterburie, and others. William the Conquerours
W. Conqueror Weare no beardes. W. Malmsbery
penie also was fine siluer of the weight of the Easterling, and had on the one side stamped an armed heade, with a beardles face, (for the Normans did weare no beardes) with a scepter in his hand: the inscription in the circumference was this, Le Rei Wilā on the other side a Crosse double to the ring, betwéene foure row
als of sixe pointes.
King Henrie the first his pennie was of the like weight, fine
nes, forme of face, crosse &c.
This Henrie in the eight year of his raigne, ordayned the peny which was round, so to bee quartered, by the crosse, that they might easily bee broken, into halfe pence and farthinges. In the first, second, thirde, fourth, and fift of king Richard the first his raigne, and afterwardes I find commonly Esterling mony menti
oned, and yet oft times the same is called argent as afore, and not otherwise.
The first great summe that I read of to be paid in Esterlinges, was in the fift of Richard the first, when Robert Earle of Ley
cester
being prisoner in France, proffered for his ransome a thou
sand markes Esterlinges, notwithstanding the Esterling pence were long before. The weight of the Esterling pennie
VVeight of starling penie 32. graines of Wheate.
may ap
peare by diuers statutes, namely of weights and measures, made in the 51. of Henry the third in these words. Thirtie two graines of Wheat, drie and round, taken in the midst of the eare, should
bee

43
Towers and Castels.
be the weight of a starling penie, 20. of those pence shoulde waye one ounce, 12. ownces a pound Troy. It followeth in the statute eight pound to make a gallon of Wine, and eight gallons a bushell of London measure; &c. Notwithstanding which Statute, I find in the eight of Edward the first, Gregorie Rokefley Mayor of London, being chiefe Maister or minister of the kinges Ex
chaunge, or mintes, a new coyne being then appointed, the pound of Esterling money should contayne as afore 12. ownces, to wit, fine siluer, such as was then made into foyle, and was commonly called siluer of Guthurons lane, 11. ounces, two Estarlings, and one ferling or farthing, and the other 17. pence ob. q. to bee lay. Also the pound of money ought to weygh xx.s̃.iij.ď.by accompt, so that no pound ought to be ouer xx.s̃.iiij.ď.nor lesse thē xx.s̃.ij.ď. by accompt, the ounce to weigh twenty pence, the penny weyght, 24. graynes (which 24. by weight then appointed, were as much as the former 32. graynes of weight) a pennie force, 25. graynes and a halfe, the pennie deble, or féeble 22. graines and a halfe &c.
Now for the pennie Esterling how it tooke that name, I think good briefly to touch.
The penie E
sterling how it tooke the name.
It hath béene said that Numa Pompilius the second King of the Romaines commanded money first to bee made, of whose name they were called Numi, and when Copper pence, siluer pence, and gold pence were made, because euery sil
uer pennie was worth ten Copper pence, and euery Gold pennie worth ten siluer pence, the pence therefore were called in Latine Denarij, and oftentimes the pence are named of the matter and stuffe of Gold or siluer. But the money of England was called of the workers and makers thereof: as the Floren of gold is called of the Florentines, that were the workers thereof: and so the Esterling pence tooke their name of the Esterlinges, which did first make this mony in England in the raign of Henry the second.
Thus haue I set downe according to my small reading in anti
quitie: these money matters, omitting the imaginations of late writers, of whom some haue saide Esterling money to take that name of a starre, stamped in the border, or ring of the pennie: o
ther some of a birde called a Stare or starling
Starling mo
ney when it tooke begin
ning in this land.
stamped in the cir
cumference: and other (more vnlikely) of being coyned at Siri
uelin.

44
Towers and Castels.
uelin or Starling, a towne in Scotland. &c.
Now concerning halfe pence, and Farthinges,
Of halfepence ond farthings.
the account of which is more subtiller then the pence, I neede not speake of them more, then that they were onely made in the Exchange at Lon
don
, and no where else. The kinges Exchaunge at London, was neare vnto the Cathedrall Church of S. Paule, and is to this day commonly called the old Chaunge, but in Euidences the old Exchange.
The kings Exchaunger, in this place, was to deliuer out to e
uery other Exchaunger, throughout England, or other the kinges Dominions, their Coyning irons, that is to say, one Standerde, or Staple, and two Trussels, or Punchons: and when the same were spent and woorne, to receiue them with an accounte, what summe had beene coyned, and also their Pix, or Boxe of assay and to deliuer other Irons new grauen, &c.
Mints in Eng
land.
I finde that in the 9. of king Iohn ,
patent 9. Iohn
there was besides the Mint at London, other Mints, at Winchester, Excester, Chicester, Canterbury, Rochester, Ipswitch, Norwitch, Lenn, Lincolne, Yorke, Carlell, North
hampton, Oxforde, S. Edmondsbury
, and Durham. The Ex
changer, Examiner, and Tryer, buyeth the siluer, for Coynage: aunswering for euery 100.£. of siluer, bought in Bolion, or otherwise, 98. l. 15. s̃. for he taketh 25.s̃. for coynage.
Deminishing. of Coine.
In the yeare 1351. William Edington Bishop of Winche
ster
, and Treasurer of Englande, a wise man, but louing the kinges commodity, more then the wealth of the whole Realme, & common people, (saith mine Author) caused a new coine, called a groate, and a halfe groate, to be coyned and stamped,
Thomas VVal
singham
. First groates and halfe coyned.
the groate to be taken for iiij.ď.and the halfe groate for ij.ď.not conteyning in weight according to the pence called Easterlinges, but much lesse, to wit by v.s̃.in the pounde: by reason whereof, victuailes, and marchandizes became the dearer, through the whole Realme. Aboute the same time also, the olde coine of golde,
Coines of gold enhaunced.
was changed in
to a new, but the old noble (then so called) was worth much aboue the taxed rate of the new, and therefore the Marchantes iugrossed32 vp the olde, and conueyed them out of the Realme to the greate losse of the kingdome. Wherefore a remedy was prouided by chaunging of the stampe.
In

45
Towers and Castels.
In the yeare 1464. king Edwarde the 4. caused a new Coine both of golde
Coines of golde⎜allayed and also raised in valew, Rose, Noble.
and siluer to bee made, whereby he gained much: For he made of an olde Noble a Royal, which he commanded to go for x.s̃.Neuerthelesse to the same Royal was put 8. ď. of Alay, and so weighed the more, being smitten, with a new stamp, to wit a Rose. He likewise made halfe Angels of 5.s̃. and Farthings, of 2.s̃. 6.ď. Angelets of 6. s̃. 8.ď. and halfe Angels 3.s̃. 4.ď. He made siluer monies of 3.ď. a groate, and so of other Coynes after that rate, to the greate harme of the commons. William Lorde Ha
stinges
being Maister of the kinges Mintes.
Thus much for Mint and coynage in and by occasion of this Tower, where the chiefe coining hath long continued, vnder cor
rection of other more skilful may suffice: and now to other acci
dents here.
In the yeare 1360. the Peace betweene England and France, being confirmed, King Edwarde came ouer into England, and straight to the Tower, to see the French king then prisoner there,
French king Prisoner in the Tower.
whose ransome hee assessed at three millions of Florences, and so deliuered him from Prison, and brought him with honor to the Sea.
In the yere 1381. the Rebels of Kent,
Rebels of Kent enter the Tower.
drew out of the Tow
er (where the king was then loged,) Simon Sudbery, Archbishop of Canterbury, Lorde Chauncelor: Robart Hales Prior of S. Iohns, and Treasurer of Englande: William Appleton Frier, the kinges confessor, and Iohn Legge a Sargiant of the kinges, and beheaded them on the Tower hill. &c.
In the yeare 1387. king Richard
Richard the 2. prisoner in the Tower.
held his feast of Christmas in the Tower. And in the yeare 1399. the same king was sent prisoner to the Tower.
In the yeare 1414. Sir Iohn Oldecastle brake out of the Tower. And the same yeare a Parliament being holden at Lei
cester
, a Porter of the Tower was drawn, hanged and headed, whose heade was sent vp, and set ouer the Tower gate, for con
senting to one Whitlooke, that brake out of the Towre.
In the yeare 1419. Fryer Randulph was sent to the Tow
er, and was there slaine by the Parson of S. Peters in the Tower.
In the yeare 1465. king Henry the 6. was⎜brought priso
ner

46
Towers and Castels.
ner to the Tower, where he remained long. In the yeare, 1470. the Tower was yeelded to the Maior of London, and his Brethren the Aldermen, who forthwith entered the same, and deliuered king Henry, but the next yeare hee was againe sent thether, and there murthered.
In the yeare, 1478. George Duke of Clarence was drow
ned in the Tower: and within 5. yeares after king Edwarde the 5. with his brother were murdered in the Tower.
King Henry the 6. murdred in the Tower
King Edward the 5. murde
red in the tow
er.
In the yere, 1502. Queene Elizabeth wife of Henry, the 7. died of childebirth in the Tower. In the yeare 1512. the Chappell in the high white Tower was burned. In the yeare 1536. Queene Anne Bullen was beheaded in the Tower. In the yeare 1541. Lady Katheren Howarde wife to king Henry the 8. was also beheaded there.
Thus much for these accidentes: and now to conclude thereof in summarie. This Tower
Vse of the Tower.
is a citadell, to defend or commande the Citie: A royall palace for assemblies, and treaties. A prison of Estate, for the most daungerous offendors: The onely place of coinage for all Englande at this present. The Armorie for war
like prouision. The Treasurie of the ornamentes and Iewels, of the Crowne, and generall conseruer of the most auncient Re
cordes of the kinges Courtes of iustice at Westminster.
The next Tower on the riuer of Thames, is on London bridge at the North ende of the draw bridge.
Tower at the north end of the draw bridg
This Tower was new begun to be builded in the yeare, 1426. Iohn Reynwell Maior of London, laide one of the first corner stones, in the foun
dation of this worke, the other three were laide by the Shiriffes, and Bridgemaisters, vpon euery of these foure stones was engra
uen in fayre Romaine letters, the name of Ihesus. And these stones, I haue seene laide in the Bridge store house, since they were taken vp, when that Tower was of late newly made of timber. This gate and Tower was at the first stronglie builded vp of stone, and so continued vntill the yere 1577. in the Moneth of Aprill , when the same stone Arched gate, and Tower being de
cayed was begunne to bee taken downe, and then were the heads of the Traytors remoued thence, and set on the Tower ouer the gate at the bridge foote, towardes Southwarke. This saide Tow
er

47
Towers and Castels.
being taken downe a new foundation was drawne: and Sir Iohn Langley Lord Maior layed the first stone in the presence of the Shiriffes, and Bridge maisters, on the 28. of August , and in the Moneth of September, the yeare 1579. the same Tow
er was finished a beutiful and chargeable peece of worke, all aboue the bridge being of timber.
An other Towre there is on London bridge, to wit, ouer the gate at the South ende of the same bridge
Tower at the south ende of the bridge.
towardes South
warke
. This gate with the Tower thereupon, and two Arches of the Bridge fell downe, and no man perished by the fall thereof in the yere, 1436.
The south gate on London bridge burned
Towards the new building whereof, diuers, cha
ritable Citizens gaue large summes of money: which gate being then again new builded, was in the yere 1471. burned by the Mar
riners and Saylors of Kent, Bastarde Fauconbridge, being theyr Captaine.
In the west part of this citie, (saith Fitzstephen) are two most strong castels &c. Also Garuasius Tilbery, in the raigne of Hen
ry
the second
, writing of these castles, hath to this effect. Two Castles (saith hee, are built with walles and rampires, wher
of one, is in right of succession, Baynardes
: the other the Ba
rons of Mountfitchet: the first of these castles bankying on the riuer Thames, was called Baynardes Castle, of Baynarde, a noble man that came in with the Conqueror, and then builded it and deceased in the yeare of the raigne of William Rufus : after whose decease Geffery Baynarde succeeded, and then William Baynarde, in the yeare 1111. who by forfeyture for felony, lost his Barony, of little Dunmow and king Henry gaue if wholy to Robart Fitz Richard the Sonne of Gilbarte Earle of Clare, and to his heires together with the honor of Baynardes castell. This Robart married Maude de Sent Licio, Lady of Bradham and deceased 1134. was buried at S. Nedes, by Richarde Earle of Clare, his Father. VValter, his sonne succeeded him, hee tooke to⎜wife Matilde de Becham, and after her decease Matilde de Lucy, on whome he begat Robarte and other, hee deceased in the yeare 1198. and was buried at Dunmow after whome succeeded Robart Fitzwater a valiant knight.
Aboute the yeare 1213. there arose a greate discorde be
twixt king Iohn, and his Barons, because of Matilde,
Liber Dunmow33.
surna
med

48
Towers and Castels.
med the fayre daughter, to the sayde Roberte Fitzwater, whome the king vnlawfully loued, but could not obtayne her, nor her fa
ther woulde consent thereunto, whereupon (and for other like cau
ses) ensued warre throughout the whole Realme. The Barons were receiued into London, where they greatly indamaged the king, but in the end the king did not onely, (therefore) bannish the said Fitzwater
Robert Fitzwa
ter
banished.
(amongst other), out of the Realme: but also cau
sed his Castle called Baynarde,
Baynardes castle destroy
ed.
and other his houses to be spoiled, which thing being done Matilde, the fayre, a Messenger being sent vnto her,
Virginity de
fended with the losse of worldly goods and life of the bodie, for life of the soule
aboute the kinges suite, whereunto shee would not consent, was poisoned. Robert Fitzwater, and some other being then passed into France, and some other into Scotland. &c.
It happened in the yere 1214. king Iohn being then in France with a greate Armie, that a truce was taken beewixt the two kinges of England and France, for the terme of 5. yeares, and a riuer or arme of the sea being then betwixt eyther Host. There was a knight in the English host, that cried to them of the other side, willing some one of their knightes to come and iust a course or twaine with him, whereupon without stay Robert Fitzwater being on the French parte, made himselfe readie, ferried ouer, and got on horsebacke, without any man to helpe him, and shewed himselfe ready to the face of his challenger, whome at the first course, he stroake so harde with his greate Speare, that horse and man fell to the grounde, and when his speare was broken, hee went backe againe to the king of France, which when the king
King Iohns oath.
had seene, by Gods tooth (quoth hee) after his vsuall oath, hee were a king indeede, that had such a knight: the frendes of Robert hearing these words, kneeled downe and saide: O King hee is your knight: it is Robert Fitzwater,
Robert Fitz
water
restored to the kings fauour.
and thereupon the next day he was sent for, and restored to the kinges fauour: by which meanes peace was concluded, and he receiued his liuinges, and had licence to repayre his Castle of Baynarde
Baynardes castle againe builded.
and other Castles.
This Robert deceased in the yeare 1234. and was buried at Dunmow, and VValter his sonne that succeeded him 1258. his Barony of Baynarde, was in the warde of king Henry in the nonage of Robert Fitzwater. This Robert tooke to his second wife Alienor, daughter to the Earle of Ferrars, in the
yeare,

49
Towers and Castels.
yeare, 1289. And in the yeare 1303. before Iohn Blund Maior of London, hee acknowledged his seruice to the same Citie for his Castle Baynarde, hee deceased in the yere 1305. and leauing issue Walter FitzRobert, who had issue Robert Fitzwater
Richarde Fitz
water Castili
an of London, and banner bearer.
who deceased in the yere 1325. vnto whom succeeded Robert Fitz Ro
bert Fitzwater
, &c. More of the Lord Fitzwaters may ye read in my summary and Annales in the 51. of Edward the 3.. But now how this honor of Baynardes Castle with the appurtenances fell from the possession of the Lords Fitzwaters, I haue not read, onely I finde that Humphrey Duke of Glocester, builded it of new, by whose death in the yeare of Christ, 1446. it came to the hands of king Henry the sixt, and from him to Richarde Duke of Yorke, of whome we reade, that in the yeare 1457 hee lodged there, as in his own house: and true it is, that his sonne king Ed
warde
the fourth being dead, and leauing his eldest sonne Edward and his second sonne Richarde, both infantes: there Richarde Duke of Glocester, then Protector, practised for the Crowne, and as it were by election of the Commons, made in the Guild hall of London, tooke vpon him there the title of the Realme, as offered and imposed vpon him: as yee may reade set downe and penned, by Sir Thomas Moore. King Henry the 7. aboute the yeare 1501. the 3. of his raigne,34 repayred or rather new builded this house not so imbattelled, or so strongly fortified castlelike, but far more beutifull and commodious, for the entertainment of any Prince or greate estate. In the 7. of his raigne hee with his Queene were lodged there, and came from thence to Paules, where they made their offering: dined in the Bishops Palace, and so returned.
King Henry the first 35 was lodged in Bay
nardes Castle
.
The eighttenth of his raigne hee was lodged there and the Ambassadors from the king of Romaines were thi
ther bronght36 to his presence, and from thence the King came to Pawles and was ther sworne vnto the king of Romaines, as the king had sworne vnto him. This Castle now belongeth to the Earle of Pembrooke. The next Tower, or Castle bankyng also on the Riuer of Thames, was, as is afore shewed, called Mountfiquites Castle, of a noble man, Baron of Mountfitchet the first builder thereof who came in with VVilliam the Con
queror
and was surnamed Le Sir Mountfiquit. This Castle hee
builded
E

50
Towers and Castels.
builded in a place not far distant from Baynardes, towardes the West. The same William Mountfiquit liued in the Raigne of Henry the 1. and was witnes to a Charter, then granted to the citie for the Shiriffes of London. Richard Montfiquit liued in king Iohns time: and in the yere 1213. was by the same king ba
nished the Realme into France, when peraduenture king Iohn caused his Castle of Montfiquit, amongst other Castles of the Barons to bee ouerthrowne: the which after his returne, might be by him againe reedified, for the totall destruction thereof was aboute the yeare 1276. when Robert Kiliwarble, Arch
bishop of Canterbury beganne the foundation of the house of the Friars Preachers church there, commonly called the Black Friers as appeareth by a Charter, the 10. of Iune, the 4, of Edwarde the 1. remayning of Recorde in the Tower, wherein is declared that Gregory de Rocksley Maior of London, and the Barons
Barons of London.
of the same Citie granted, and gaue vnto the saide Archbishoppe Robert two lanes or waies next the streete of Baynardes castle and the Tower of Montfiquit, to be applied for the enlargement of the saide Church and place.
A third Tower there was also situate on the riuer of Thames
Tower in the Thames.
neare vnto the saide Blacke Friers Church, on the west parte thereof, builded at the Citizens charges, but by licence and com
mandement of Edwarde the 1. and of Edwarde the 2. as appea
reth by their grantes: which Tower was then finished and so stoode for the space of 300. yeares, and was at the last taken downe by the commandement of Iohn Sha Maior of London in the yeare 1502.
An other Tower or Castle
Tower or Castle on the west⎮of Lon
by S. Brides Church.
also was there in the west parte of the Citie, perteyning to the king: For I reade that in the yere 1087. the 20. of VVilliam the first 37, the Citie of London with the Church of S. Paule. being burned, Mauritius then Bishop of London afterwarde began the foundation of a new Church, whereunto king VVilliam (saith mine Author) gaue the choice stones of this Castle standing neare to the banke of the riuer of Thames, at the west ende of the Citie. After this Mauritius, Ri
charde
his successor, purchased the streetes aboue Paules church compassing the same with a wall of stone, and gates.
V38 ita Arkenwald
King Hen

51
Towers and Castels.
ry the first gaue to this Richarde so much of the Moate (or wall) of the Castle, on the Thames side to the south, as shoulde be néed
full to make the said wall of the Churchyarde, and so much more as should suffice to make a way without the wal on the North side &c. This Tower (or Castle) thus destroyed stoode as it may seeme, in place where now standeth the house called Bridewel. For not
withstanding the destruction of the saide Castle or Tower, the house remayned large, so that the kings of this Realme long after were lodged there, and kept their Courtes: for in the 9. yeare of Henry the thirde the Courte of law and iustice, were kept in the kinges house,
The kinges house by S. Brides in Eleetestreete.
wheresoeuer he was lodged, and not else where. And that the kings haue beene lodged and kept their Law courtes in this place, I could shew you many authorities of Recorde, but for plaine proofe this one may suffice. Hæc est finalis concordia, faƈta in Curia Domini regis apud Sanƈt. Brigid. London a die Sanƈti Michelis in 15. dies, Anno regni regis Iohannis 7. co
rā G. Fil. Petri. Eustacio de Faucōberg, Iohanne de Gestlinge Osbart filio Heruey, VValter, de Crisping, Iusticiar. & aliis Baronibus Domini regis
. More (as Mathew Paris
Mathew Paris manuscripta39. Parliament at S. Brides.
hath) about the yeare 1210. king Iohn in the 12. of his raigne summoned a Parliament at S. Brides in London, where hee exacted of the Clergie and religious persons the summe of 100000. poundes, & besides all this, the white Monkes were compelled to cancell their Priuiledges, and to pay 40000. poundes to the king, &c. This house of S. Brides of latter time being left, and not vsed by the kinges: fell to ruine, insomuch that the verie platforme thereof remayned for greate parte wast, and as it were, but a laystall of filth and rubbish: onely a fayre well remained there: a greate part whereof, namely on the west, (as hath beene said) was giuen to the Bishop of Salisbnry 40, the other parte towardes the East re
mayning wast, vntill that king Henry the 8. builded a stately and beutifull house thereupon, giuing it to name Bridewell,
Bridewell builded by Henry the 8.
of the parish and well there: this house he purposely builded for the en
tertainement of the Emperor Charles the 5. who in the yeare, 1522. came into this Citie, as I haue shewed in my summary annales, and large chronicles.
On the northwest side of this Citie, neare vnto Redcrosse
sterete
E2

52
Towers and Castels.
streete there was a Tower commonlie called Barbican, or Burh
kenning
, for that the same being placed on a high ground, and also builded of some good height, was in the olde time vsed as a Watch Tower, for the Citie, from whence a man might behold and view the whole Citie towards the South, as also sée into Kent, Sussex, and Surrey, and likewise euery other way east, north, or west.
Some other Burhkennings or (Watch Towers) there were of olde time in and aboute the citie, all which were repayred, yea and others new builded, by Gilbart de Clare earle of Glocester, in the raigne of king Henry, the third, when the Barons were in Armes, and held the citie against the ki41ng: but the Barons being reconciled to his fauour in the yeare 1267. hee caused all their Burhkenninges, watch towers, and Bulwarkes made and re
pared by the said Earle, to be plucked downe, and the ditches to be filled vp:so that nought of them might be séene to remaine: and then was this Burhkenning amongst the rest ouerthrowne and destroyed: and although the ditch neare thereunto, called Hounds ditch was stopped vp, yet the streete of long time after was called Houndes ditch, and of late time more commonly called Barbican. The plot or seate of this Burhkenning or watch tower, king Ed
warde
the thirde
in the yeare 1336. and the 10. of his raigne
, gaue vnto Robert Efforde Earle of Suffolke, by the name of his Mannor of Base courte, in the parish of S. Giles without Cripple gate of London, commonly called the Barbican.
Tower Royall was of old time the kinges house, but sithence called the Queenes Wardrobe: the Princesse, mother to King Richard the 2. in the 4. of his raigne was lodged there being for
ced to flie from the tower of London, when the Rebels possessed it: But on the 15. of Iune (saith Frosarde) VVat Tylar being slaine, the king went to this Lady Princesse his mother, then lod
ged in the Tower Royall, called the Queenes Wardrobe, where she had tarried 2. dayes and 2. nightes: which Tower (sayeth the Recorde of Edwarde the 3. the 36. yeare) was in the Parish of S. Michaell de Pater noster, &c.
Liber S. in en
borum
. The king of Ermony came into England.
In the yeare 1386. king Richarde with Queene Anne his wife, kept their Christmas at Eltham, whether came to him Lion king of Ermony vnder pretence to reforme Peace, betwixt thekinges of Englande and
France

53
Of Schooles and houses of Learning.
France, but what his comming profited he onely vnderstoode: for besides innumerable giftes, that he receiued of the king, and of the Nobles, the king lying then in this Royall at the Queenes War
drobe
,
Richarde the 2. lodged in the Tower Royall.
in London, granted to him a Charter of a thousand pounds by yeare, during his life. Hee was (as hee affirmed) chased out of his kingdome by the Tartarians. The rest concerning this Tower shall you reade when you come to the Vintry warde in which it standeth.
Of Schooles and other houses of Learning.
IN the raigne of king Stephen, and of Henry the second saith Fitzstephen, there were in Lon
don
, thrée principall Churches: which had fa
mous Schooles,
Famous Schooles of philosophie by priuiledge in London.
either by priuiledge and aunci
ent dignitie, or by fauour of some particular per
sons, as of Doctors which were accounted no
table and renowned for knowledge in Philosophie. And there were other inferior Schooles also. Upon Festiuall daies the Maisters made solemne meetinges
Solemne mee
tinges and dis
puting of schollers Logi
cally and De
monstratiuely.
in the Churches, where their Schollers disputed Logically and demonstratiuely, as he termeth it: some bringing Enthimems, other perfect Sillogismes, some disputed for shew, others to trace out the truth: cunning Sophi
sters were thought braue Schollers, when they flowed with wordes: Others vsed Fallaxes: Rethoritians spake aptly to per
swade, obseruing the precepts of arte, and omitting nothing that might serue their purpose: the boies of diuers Schooles
Grammar schooles and schollers their exercises.
did cap, or potte verses, and contended of the principles of Grammar: there were some, which on the other side with Epigrams and Rymes, nipping and quipping their fellowes, and the faultes of others, though suppressing their names, moued thereby, much laughter among their Auditors: hitherto out of Fitzstephen for Schooles and Schollers, and for their exercises in the Citie, in his dayes, Sithence the which time, as to me it seemeth, by the increase of Colledges and Studients in the Uniuersities of Oxforde and
Cambridge,
E3

54
Of Schooles and other houses of Learning.
Cambridge, the frequenting of Schooles and exercises of Schol
lers in the Citie as had beene accustomed hath much decreased.
The three principall Churches, which had these famous Schooles by priuiledges must needes be at the Cathedrall Church of S. Paule for one, seeing that by a generall Councell holden in the yeare of Christ, 1.176. at Rome, in the Patriarchie of Lata
rane
, it was decreede that euery Cathedrall Church should haue his Schoolemaister to teach poore Schollers
euery cathedral Church had his schoole for poore schollers
and others as had beene accustomed, and that no man shoulde take any reward for licence to teach. The second as most ancient may seeme to haue been the Monasterie of S. Peter at VVestminster, whereof Iu
gulphus
(Abbote of Crowland in the raign of William the Con
queror
writeth thus:) I Iugulphus an humble seruant of God borne of English parentes, in the most beutifull Citie of London, for to attaine to learning, was first put to VVest
minster
Free schoole at VVestminster, in the raigne of Edward the Confessor.
and after to study at Oxforde, &c. And writing in praise of Queene Edgitha, wife to Edwarde the Confessor, I haue seene her, saith hee, often when being but a boy, I came to see my father dwelling in the Kinges courte, and of
ten comming from Schoole, when I met her, she would oppose me, touching my learning, and lesson, & falling from Gram
mar to Logicke, wherein she had some knowledge, she would subtilly conclude an argument with mee, and by her hande
maiden giue me 3. or 4. peeces of money, and send me vnto the Palace where I should receiue some victuals, and then be dismissed
.
The third Schoole seemeth to haue beene at the Monasterie of S. Sauiour at Barmondsey in Southwark: for other Priories, as of S. Iohn by Smithfielde, S. Bartlemew, in Smithfielde. S. Marie Ouery in Southwarke, and that of the Holy Trinity by Aldgate, were all of later foundation, and the Friories, Collea
ges, and Hospitals in this Citie, were raised since them, in the raignes of Henry the 3, Edward the 1. 2. and 3. &c. Al which hou
ses had their Schooles, though not so famous as these first named.
But touching Schooles more lately aduanced in this Citie, I reade, that king Henry the fift hauing suppressed the Priories
Priories alliens suppressed.
aliens whereof some⎮were aboute London, namely one Hospitall,
cal-

55
Of Schooles and other houses of Learning.
called Our Lady of Rounciuall by Charing Crosse: one other Hospitall in Oldbourne: one other without Cripplegate: and the fourth without Aldersgate, besides other that are now worn out of memorie and whilest there is no monument remayning more then Rounciuall conuerted to a brotherhoode which continued till the raign of Henry the 8. or Edward the 6. this I say, and o
ther their schools being broken vp and ceased: king Henry the sixt in the 24. of his raigne, by patent, appointed that there should be in London, Grammar schooles, besides S. Paules, at S. Martins
Henry the sixt appointed Grammar Schooles.
Le Grand, S. Marie Le Bow, in Cheap, S. Dunstons in the west and S. Anthonies. And in the next yere to wit, 1394 42. the said king ordeyned by Parliament that foure other Grammar schools shold be erected, to wit in the parishes of S. Andrew in Oldborne,
Grammar schools appoin
ted by Parlia
ment.
Alhallowes the greate in Thames streete, S. Peters. v
pon Cornehill
, and in the Hospitall of S. Thomas of Acons in west Cheape, since the which time as diuers scholes by suppres
sing of religious houses (whereof they were members) in the raign of Henry the 8. haue been decayed, so again haue some others been newly erected, and founded for them: as namely Paules schoole,
Paules schoole new builded.
in place of an old ruined house was builded in most ample manner, and largely indowed, in the yeare 1512. by Iohn Collet Doctor of Diuinity Deane of Paules, for 153. poore mens children: for which there was ordeyned a Maister, Surmaister, or Usher, and a Chaplen. Againe in the yeare 1553. after the erection of Christes hospitall
Free schools in Christes Hos
pitall
.
in the late dissolued house of the Gray Friers, a great number of poore children being taken in a Schole was also ordaned there, at the Citizens charges. Also in the yere 1561. the Marchant Taylors
Free schole founded by the Marchant Taylors.
of London: founded one notable free Grammar Schoole, in the parish of S. Lawrence Poultney by Candleweeke streete, Richard Hils late maister of that Com
pany: hauing giuen 500.£. toward the purchase of an house, called the Mannar of the Rose, sometime the Duke of Buckinghams, wherin the School is kept. As for the meeting of the Schoolemai
sters, on festiuall daies, at festiuall churches, & the disputing of their Schollers
Scholers dispu
ted in S. Bartil
mews
church
yarde.
Logically &c. whereof I haue before spoken, the same was long since discontinued: But the arguing of the Schoole boyes aboute 1th principles of Grammar, hath beene conti
nued euen till our time: for I my selfe in my youth haue yearelie
seene
E4

56
Of Schooles and other houses of Learning.
seene on the Eue of S. Bartlemew the Apostle, the schollers of diuers Grammar schooles repaire vnto the Churchyard of S. Bartlemew, the Priorie in Smithfielde, where vpon a banke boorded aboute vnder a Tree, some one Scholler hath stepped vp, and there hath appoased and answered, till he were by some better Scholler ouercome and put down: and then the ouercomer, ta
king the place, did like as the first: and in the end the best apposars and answerers had rewards, which I obserued not, but it made both good Schoolemasters, and also good Schollers, diligently a
gainst suchtimes to prepare themselues for the obtayning of this garland. I remember there repayred to these exercises amongst o
thers the Maisters & Schollers of the free Schooles of S. Paules in London: of S. Peters at Westminster: of S. Thomas Acons Hospitall: and of S. Anthonies Hospitall: whereof the last na
med commonly presented the best schollers: and had the prize in those daies.
This Priorie of S. Bartlemew, being surrendred to H. the 8. those disputations of Schollers in that place surceased.
Disputation of Schollers in Christes Hospitall.
And was again (onely for a yere or twaine) in the raigne of Edward the 6. reuiued in the Cloystre of Christes Hospitall, where the best Schollers then stil of S. Anthonies schoole, howsoeuer the same be now fallen, both in number and estimation, were rewarded with bowes and arrowes of siluer giuen to them by Sir Martin Bowes Goldsmith: neuerthelesse howsoeuer the encourage
ment fayled, the children mindfull of the former vsage did for a long season disorderly in the open streetes, prouoke one an other with salue tu quoque, placet tibi mecum disputare, placet : and so proceeding from this to questions in Grammar, they vsually fel from that to blowes, many times in so great heapes that they trobled the streets, & passengers, so that finally they wer restrained.
Of latter time, in the yeare of Christ, 1582. there was founded a publike lecture in Chirurgerie to bee reade in the Colledge of Phisitions,
Lecture in Chirurgery
in Knight-riders streete, and to begin in the yeare 1584. on the 6. of May: and so to be continued for euer twice in euery weeke, on wednesday and Friday, by the honora
ble Baron, Iohn Lorde Lombley and the learned Richarde Caldwell Doctor in Phisicke: the Reader whereof to bee Richarde Forster, Doctor of Phisicke during his life. Fur
ther

57
Of Schooles and other houses of Learning.
thermore about the same time there was also begunne a Ma
thematicall lecture to be read in a fayre olde Chappell,
Mathematicall lecture read.
builded by Simon Eayre, within the Leaden hall: wherof a learned Citizen borne, named Thomas Hood was the first Reader. But this Chappell and other parts of that hall being imployed for stowage of goodes taken out of a great Spanish Caracke, the said Lecturs ceased any more to be read, and was then in the yeare 1588. read in the house of M. Thomas Smith in Grasse stréete, &c.
Last of all S. Thomas Gresham knight, Agent to the Quéens Highnesse, by his last wil and testament made in the yeare 1579. gaue the Royall Exchaunge, and all the buyldings thereunto ap
pertayning, that is to say, the one moytie to the Mayor and com
munaltie of London and their successors, vpon trust that they per
forme as shalbe declared: and the other moitie to the Mercers in like confidence. The Mayor and communaltie are to find foure to reade Lectures, of Diuinitie, Astronomie, Musicke, and Geo
metrie, within his dwelling house in Bishopsgate stréete, and to bestow the summe of 200,£. to wit 50.£>. the péece &c. The Mercers likewise are to find thrée Readers, that is in Ciuill law, Phisicke, and Rethorick within the same dwelling house, the sum of 150.l. to euery Reader 50.l. &c. Which gift hath béene since that time confirmed by Parliament, to take effect, and beginne after the decease of the Lady Anne Gresham, which happened in the yeare 1596. and so to continue for euer. Whereupon the Lecturers were accordingly chosen and appointed to haue begun their readinges in the moneth of Iune 1597. &c. which also they do at this time performe. Whose names be Anthonie Wootton for Diuinitie, Doctor Mathew Guin for Phisick, Doctor Henry Mountlow for the Ciuill lawe, Doctor Iohn Bull for Musicke, Breerewood for Astronomie, Henry Brigges for Geometrie, and Caleb VVillis for Rethoricke, to the great delight of many both learned and louers of learning. These Lectures are read dayly in the terme times, by euery one vpon his day, in the morning be
twixt 9. and 10. in Latine: in the afternoone betwixt 2: and 3. in English, saue that D. Bull is dispensed with to reade the Musicke Lecture in English onely vpon two seuerall dayes, Thursday and Saterday in the after noones, betwixt 3. and 4. of the clocke.
Howses
E5

58
Students of the Common Law.
Houses of students of the Com
mon Lawe.
BUt besides all this there is in and about this Citie a whole Uniuersitie
A vniuersity of students in & about this Citie.
(as it were) of students, practisers or pleaders and Iudges of the laws of this realme, not liuing of com
mon stipends (as in other Uniuersities it is for the most part done) but of their own pri
uate maintenance, as being altogether fedde eyther by their places, or practise, or other
wise by their proper reuenew, or exhibition of parents and friends: for that the younger sort are eyther gentlemen, or the sonnes of gentlemen, or of other most wealthie persons.
Houses of stu
dents of the commō lawes and Iudges.
Of these houses, there be at this day 14. in all, whereof 9. do stand within the liber
ties of the Citie, and 5. in the subburbes thereof, to wit:
Within the
liberties.
Sergeants Inne in Fleetstreet
Sergeants Inne in Chancery lane
for Iudges & Sergeants only
The Inner Temple
The Middle Temple
in Fleetstreete, houses of
Court.
Cliffords Inne in Fleetstreet
Thauies Inne in Oldborne
Furniuals Inne in Oldborne
Barnards Inne, in Oldborne
Staple Inne in Oldborne
houses of
Chauncerie
Without the
liberties.
Grayes Inne in Oldborne
Lincolnes Inne, in Chancerie, lane by
   the old Temple in Oldborne.
houses of
Court
Clements Inne
New Inne
Lyons Inne
houses of Chauncerie, without
   Temple barre
One

59
Students of the Common Lawes.
One other Inne of Chauncery sometime there was, called Chesters Inne,
Chesters Inne or strand Inne
for the néerenes to the Bishop of Chesters house, but more commonly tearmed Strand Inne, for that it stoode néere to the Strand bridge without temple Barre: the which and o
ther dwelling houses néere adioyning, were pulled downe in the raigne of king Edward the sixt, by Edward Duke of Sommerset and Protector of the realme, who in place thereof raised that beau
tifull (but yet vnperfect house) called Sommerset house. There was moreouer in the raigne of King Henrie the sixt, a tenth house of Chauncerie, mentioned by Iustice Fortscue in his booke of the Lawes of England, but where it stood or when it was abandoned I cannot finde, and therefore I will leaue it, and returne to the rest.
The houses of Court
Houses of Court what they be.
bee replenished partly with young stu
dentes, and partly with graduates and practisers of the law: but the Innes of Chauncery being as it were, prouinces, seuerally subiected to the Innes of Court, be chiefly furnished with Officers Atturneyes, Soliciters, and clarkes, that follow the courtes of the Kings Bench, or common place: and yet there want not some other being young students, that come thether sometimes from one of the vniuersities, and sometimes immediatly from Gram
mer schools, and these hauing spent some time in studying vpon the first elements and grounds of the lawe, and hauing performed the exercises of their owne houses (called Boltas Mootes, and putting of cases) they procéed to be admitted, and become students in some of these foure houses or Innes of Court, where continuing by the space of seuen yeares (or thereaboutes) they frequent readinges, méetinges, boltinges, and other learned exercises, whereby grow
ing ripe in the knowledge of the lawes, and approued withall to be of honest conuersation, they are eyther by the generall consent of the Benchers (or Readers) being of the most auncient, graue, and iudiciall men of euery Inne of the Court, or by the special pri
uiledge of the present reader there, selected and called to the degrée of Vtter Barresters, and so enabled to bee common counsellers, & to practise the lawe, both in their chambers and at the Barres.
Of these after that they be called to a further steppe of prefer
ment, (called the Bench) there are twaine euery yeare chosen a
mong

60
Of Orders and Customes.
mong the Benchers, of euery Inne of Court, to be readers there, who do make their readings at two times in the yeare also: that is, one in Lent, and the other at the beginning of August.
And for the helpe of young students in euery of the Innes of Chauncery, they do likewise choose out of euery one Inne of court a Reader (being no Bencher) but an Vtter Barrester there, of 10 or 12. yeares continuance, and of good profite in studie. Nowe from these of the said degrée of Councellors (or Vtter Barrester) hauing continued therein the space of fourtéene or fiftéene yeares at the least, the chiefest and best learned, are by the benchers elected to increase the number (as I said) of the Bench amongst them, and so in their time doe become first single, and then double rea
ders, to the students of those houses of Court: after which last reading they be named Apprentices at the lawe,
Apprentizes at the law.
and in default of a sufficient number of Sargeantes at law, these are (at the pleasure of the prince) to be aduaunced to the places of Sergeants: out of which number of Sergeants also the void places of Iudges are likewise ordinarily filled, albeit now and then some be aduan
ced by the speciall fauour of the Prince, to the estate, dignitie and place, both of Sergeant and Iudge, as it were in one instant. But from thenceforth they hold not any roome in those Innes of court, being translated to one of the said two Innes, called Sergeantes Innes, where none but the Sergeants and Iudges do conuere.
Of Orders & Customes.
OF Orders and Customes in this Citie of old time Fitz Stephen saith as followeth: Men of all trades,
Men of all trades in di
stinct places. Wine in ships and wine in Tauernes. Cookes row in Thame
street
.
sellers of all sortes of wares, labourers in euerie worke, euerie morning are in their distinct and seuerall places: furthermore, in London vppon the riuer side, betweene the wine in shippes, and the wine to bee solde in Tauernes, is a common cookerie or cookes rowe, there dayly for the season of the yeare, men might haue meate, rost, sod or fried: fish, flesh, fowles, fit for rich and poore. If any come sodainely to
any

61
Of Orders and Customes.
any Cittizen from a farre, wearie and not willing to tarry till the meate be bought, and dressed, while the seruant bringeth water for his maysters handes, and fetcheth bread, hee shall haue immediately from the riuers side, all viandes whatsoe
uer he desireth, what multitude soeuer eyther of soldiers or straungers doe come to the Citie, whatsoeuer houre day or night according to their pleasures may refresh themselues, & they which delight in delicatenesse may bee satisfied with as delicate dishes there, as may be found els where. And this cookes rowe is very necessarie to the Citie: and (according to Plato in Gorgias) next to Phisicke, is the office of cookes, as part of a Citie.
Without one of the gates is a plain field,
Smithfield for a plain smooth ground, is cal
led smeth and smothie.
both in name and deede, where euery fryday (vnlesse it bee a solemne bidden holy day) is a notable shew of horses to bee sold, Earles, Bar
rons, Knights, and Citizens repayre thether to see, or to buy: there may you with pleasure see amblers pacing it deli
cately: there may ye see trotters fit for men of armes, sitting more hardly:
Market for horses and o
ther cattell.
ther may you haue notable young horse not yet brokē: there may you haue strong steeds wel limmed, geldings whom the buyers do especially regarde for pace, and swiftnes: the boyes which ride these horses, sometime two, sometime three, doe runne races for wagers, with a desire of praise, or hope of victorie. In an other part of that field are to be sold all implements of husbandrie, as also fat swine, milch kine, sheepe and oxen: there stand also mares and horses, fitte for ploughes and teames with their young coltes by them. At this citie
Marchants of all nations tra
ded at this Ci
ty, & had their seuerall Keyes and wharfes.
Marchante strangers of all nations had their keyes and wharfes:
The Authors opinion of this Citie, the anti
quitie thereof after some au
thors which he had reade.
the Arabians sent gold: the Sabians spice and frankensence: the Scithian armour, Babilon oile, Indian purple garments, Egipt precious stones, Norway and Russia Ambergrese, & Sables, & the French men wine. According to the truth of Chronicles, this Citie is ancienter then Rome,
This Citie de
uided into Wardes more then 400 years since, and also had then both Aldermen and Sheriffes.
built of the auncient Troians and of Brute, before that was built by Romulus, and Rhemus: and therefore vseth the aun
cient customes of Rome. This Citie euen as Rome, is diui
ded into Wardes: it hath yearely Shiriffes in steed of Con
sulles

62
Of Orders and Customes.
sulles: it hath the dignitie of Senators in Aldermen. It hath vnder Officers, Common Sewers, and Conduictes in streetes, according to the qualitie of causes, in hath generall Courtes: and assemblies vpon appointed dayes. I doe not thinke that there is any Cittie, wherein are better customes,
Customes of London.
in frequen
ting the Churches, in seruing God, in keeping holy dayes, in giuing almes, in entertayning straungers in solemnizing Mar
riages, in furnishing banquets, celebrating funerals, and bury
ing dead bodies.
The onely plagues of London, is immoderate quassing a
mong the foolish sort, and often casualties by fire.
Casualtie of fires when houses were couered with thatch.
Most part of the Bishops, Abbots, and great Lordes of the land haue houses there, whereunto they resort, and bestow much when they are called to Parliament by the king, or to counsell by their Metropolitane, or otherwise by their priuate businesse.
Thus far Fitzstephen of the estate of these things in his time, whereunto may be added the present, by conference whereof, the alteration will easily appeare.
Men of trades and sellers of wares in this City haue often times since chaunged their places, as they haue found their best aduan
tage. For whereas Mercers and Haberdashers vsed to kéepe their shoppes in West Cheape, of later time they held them on London Bridg, where partly they yet remayne. The Gold
smithes of Gutherons lane, and old Exchaunge, are now for the most part remoued into the South side of west Cheap: the Pepe
rers and Grocers of Sopers lane, are now in Buckles berrie, & other places: the Drapers of Lombardstréete and of Cornehill, are seated in Candlewickstréete and Watheling streete: the Skinners from S. Mary Pellipers, or at the Axe, into Budgerow and Walbrooke: The Stockefishmongers in Thames stréete: wette Fishmongers in Knightriders stréete, and Bridge stréete: The Ironmongers of Ironmongers lane, and old Iury, in
to Thames stréete: the Uinteners from the Uinetrée into di
uers places. But the Brewers for the more parte remaine néere to the friendly water of Thames: the Butchers in East
cheape
, and S. Nicholas Shambles: the Hosyers of olde time in Hosyer lane, neare vnto Smithfield, are since remoued into Cord
wayner