Survey of London (1633): Orders and Customs

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Of Orders and Customes.
OF Orders and Customes in
this Citie
, Fitzstephen (in
his time) said as follow
Men of all Trades in dictinct places.
Men of all Trades, sel
lers of all sorts of Wares, la
bourers in every worke, every morning are
in their distinct and severall places.
Wine in Ships, and Wine in Taverns.
thermore, in London, upon the River side,
betweene the wine in Ships, and the wine
to be sold in Taverns, is a common Cookery,
or Cookes Row, where daily for the season of
the yeere, men might have meat, roast, sod,

Of Orders and Customes.

or fryed fish, flesh, fowles, fit for rich and
poore. If any come suddenly to any Citi
zen from afarre, weary, and not willing to
tarry till the meat be bought, and dresssed,
while the servant bringeth water for his
masters hands, and fetcheth bread, he shall
have immediately (from the Rivers side)
all viands whatsoever hee desireth, What
multitude soever, either of Souldiers, or
strangers doe come to the Citie, whatsoever
houre, day or night, according to their plea
sures, may refresh themselves, and they
which delight in delicatenesse, may bee sa
tisfied with as delicate dishes there, as may
be found elsewhere. And this Cookes row
is very necessary to the Citie: and accor
ding to Plato in Gorgius; next to Physick
is the office of Cookes, as part of a City.
Without one of the Gates1 is a plaine field,2
both in name and deed,
Smithfield for a plain smooth ground, is called smeth and smothie.
where every Fry
day, unlesse it bee a solemne bidden Holy
day, is a notable shew of horses to bee sold,
Market for horses and other cat
Barons, Knights and Citizens re
paire thither to see, or to buy: there may
you of pleasure see amblers, pacing it deli
cately: there may you see trotters, fit for
men of armes, setting more hardly: there
there may you have not able young horses not
yet brokene: may you have strong steeds, well
limmedgeldings, whō the buiers do especially
regard for pace, and swiftnesse. The boyes
which ride these horses, sometime two, some
time three, doe runne races for wagers,
with a desire of praise, or hope of victory. In
another part of that fieldare to be sold all
implements of husbandry, as also fat swine,
milch kine, sheepe and Oxen: there stand
also Mares and Horses, fit for Ploughes and
Teames, with their young Colts by them.
Merchants of all Na
tions tra
ded at this City, and had their severall keyes and wharfes.

At this City, Merchant strangers of all
Nations, had their keyes and wharfes: the
Arabians sent gold: the Sabeans spice
and Frankincense:
The Au
thors opi
nion of this City, the anti
quity ther
the Scythian Armour,
Babylon oyle, Indian purple garments,
Egypt precious stones, Norway and Russia
Ambergreece and sables, and the French
wine. According to the truth of Chro
nicles, this City is ancienter than Rome,
built by the ancient Troians and by Brute,
This City divided in
to Wards more than 400. yeers since, and also had then both Aldermen and She

before that was built by Romulus and
Remus; and therefore useth the ancient
customes of Rome. This Citie, even as
Rome, is divided into Wards. It hath
yeerely Shriffes, in stead of Consuls. It
hath the diginity of Senators, in Aldermen.
It hath under-Officers, Common Sewers,
and Conducts in streets,
Customes of London.
according to the
quality of causes. It hath generall Courts
and assemblies upon appointed daies. I doe
not thinke that there is any City, wherein
are better customes, in frequenting the
Churches, in serving God, in keeping Ho
ly-daies, in giving almes, in entertaining
strangers, in solemnizing Marriages, in
furnishing banquets, celebrating funerals,
and burying dead bodies.
The only plagues of London,
Casualties of fires when houses were covered with thatch.
is immode
rate quaffing among the foolish sort, and of
ten casualties by fire. Most part of the Bi
shops, Abbots, and great Lords of the land,
have houses there, whereunto they resort and
bestow much, when they are called to Parli
ament by the King, or to counsell by their
Metropolitane, or otherwise by their pri
vate businesse.
Thus farre Fitzstephen, of the estate
of things in his time, whereunto may
bee added the present, by conference
whereof, the alteration will easily ap
Change of place and tradesmen.
Men of trades and sellers of wares in
this City have oftentimes since chan
ged their places, as they have found
their best advantage. For whereas Mer
, and Haberdashers used wholly
then to keepe their shops in west Cheap;
of later time, they held them on Lon
don bridge
, where some of them doe as
yet remaine. The Goldsmiths of Gu
therons lane
, and the Old Exchange, are
now (for the most part) removed into
the South side of West Cheape. The
Pepperers & Grocers of Sopers lane, are
now in Bucklesbury, and other places
disperced. The Drapers of Lombard-street,
and of Cornehill, are seated in
Candleweekestreet, and Watheling streete.
The Skinners from St. Mary Pellipers,
or at the Axe; into Budgerow and Wal
. The Stockfishmongers in Thames
: wet Fishmongers in Knightriders
, and Bridge-street. The Ironmon
of Ironmongrs lane, and Old Iury,
into Thames street. The Vintners, from
the Vinetree, into divers places. But
the Brewers (for the most part) remai
ned neere to the friendly water of
Thames. The Butchers in Eastcheap, St.
Nicholas Shambles
, and the Stockes
. The Hosiers3 (of old time) in
Hosier lane, neere unto Smithfield, are
since then removed into Cordwayner
Of Orders and Customes.
street, the upper part thereof by Bow-Church,
and last of all, into Burchover
by Cornhill. The Shoomakers and
Curriors of Cordwayner street, removed,
the one to Saint Martins legrand, the o
ther to London Wall, neere to Moore
. The Founders remaine by them
selves in Lothbury. Cookes or Pastelars,
(for the most part) were in Thames street,
the others dispersed into divers parts.
Poulters of late removed out of the
Poultrie, betwixt the Stockes and the
great Conduit in Cheape, into Grasse
and S. Nicholas shambles. Bowyers
from Bowyers row by Ludgate, into di
vers parts, and almost worne out with
the Fletchers. Pater noster-makers, of old
time, or Bead-makers, and Text-wri
ters,4 are gone out of Pater noster row, and
are called Stationers of Pauls Church-yard.
Patten-makers, of Saint Marga
ret Pattens
, cleane worne out. La
bourers, every worke-day to be found
in Cheap, about Sopers lane end. Horse-coursers,
and sellers of Oxen, sheepe,
swine, and such like, remaine in their
old Market of Smithfield, &c.
That Merchants of all Nations had
their Keyes and Wharfes at this Citie,
Merchāts of all nati

wherunto they brought their Merchan
dizes, before, and in the reigne of Hen
the second
, mine Author wrote (of
his owne knowlege) to be true, though
for the Antiquity of the Citie, he tooke
the common opinion. Also, that this
Citie was (in his time, and before) divi
ded into Wards; had yeerely Sheriffes
and Aldermen, generall Courts and as
semblies, and such like notes by him set
downe, in commendation of the Citi
zens, whereof there is no question. He
wrote likewise of his owne experience,
as being borne and brought up amongst
And to confirme his opinion, concer
ning Merchandizes then hither trans
ported, whereof haply may be some ar
gument; Thomas Clifford (before Fitz
time) writing of King Edward
the confessor
, saith to this effect: King
, intending to make his Sepulchre
Westminster, for that it was neere to
the famous Citie of
London, and the River
of Thames
, which brought in all kinde of
Merchandizes from all parts of the world,
. And William of Malmesbury, that that
lived in the reigne of William the first
and second, Henry the first, and King
, calleth this A Noble Citie, full
of wealthy Citizens, frequented with the
trade of Merchandizes from all parts of the
. Also I read in divers Records, that
(in old time) No woad was stowed or har
boured in this Citie, but all was presently
sold in the Ships, except by licence purcha
sed of the Sheriffes
; till of more later
time, to wit in the yeere 1236. Andrew
, being Maior, by assent of the
principall Citizens, the Merchants of
Amiens, Nele and Corby, purchased Let
ters ensealed with the common seale of
the Citie, that they, when they came,
might harborow their Woads, and
therefore should give the Maior every
yeere 50. Markes starling. And the
same yeere they gave an hundred pound
toward conveying of water from Tyborn
to this Citie, as already hath beene re
Also the Merchants of Normandy
made fine, for licence to harbour their
Woads, till it was otherwise provided,
in the yeere 1263. Thomas Fitzthomas
being Maior, &c. Which proveth, that
then (as before) they were here, among
other Nations, priviledged.
It followeth in Fitzstephen;
Plagues of London, im
moderate quaffing, and casualties by fire.
That the
plagues of London (in that time) were im
moderate quaffing among fooles, and often
casualties by fire.
For the first, to wit, of quaffing, it
continueth still as afore, or rather, is
mightily increased, though greatly qual
med among the poorer sort, not of any
holy abstinency, but of meere necessity:
Ale and Beere being small, and Wines
in price above their reach.
As for prevention of casualties by fire,
the houses in this Citie (being then
builded all of timber, and covered with
thatch of straw or reed;)
Lib. Constit.
it was long
since thought good policie in our fore-fathers,
Lib. Horne.
wisely to provide;
Lib. Clarkē
namely, in
the yeere of Christ, 1189. the first of
Richard the first
, Henry Fitzalwine, (be
ing then Maior) that all men in this Ci
tie should build their houses of stone up
to a certaine height, and to cover them
with slate or baked tile. Since which
time, thankes bee given to God, there
hath not hapned the like often consu
ming fire in this Citie, as before.

Of Orders and Customes.

But now in our time, insteed of these
stur in and about this City.
others are come in place, no
lesse meet to be reformed, namely, Pur
prestures, or encrochments on the high
wayes, lanes, and common grounds, in
and about this City. Whereof a lear
ned Gentleman, a grave Citizen,
hath (not many yeeres since) written
and exhibited a Book to the Maior and
communalty, which Booke, whether
the same hath been by them read, and
diligently considered upon, I know not;
but sure I am, nothing is reformed since
concerning this matter.
Then the number of Cars, Draies,
Carts and Drayes not well governed in this City dange
and Coaches, more than hath
been accustomed, the streets and lanes
being streightned, must needs be dan
gerous, as daily experience proveth.
The Coach-man rides behinde the
horse tailes, lasheth them, and looketh
not behind him. The Dray-man sitteth
and sleepeth on his Dray, and letteth
his horse leade him home.
L. S. Mary Aborum.
I know, that
by the good Lawes and Customes of
this City, shod Carts are forbidden to
enter the same, except upon reasonable
causes, as service of the Prince, or such
like, they be tolerated. Also that the
fore-horse of every carriage should bee
led by hand: but these good orders are
not observed. Of old time, Coaches
were not known in this Iland,
Riding in Whirlicotes.
but Cha
riots or Whirlicotes, then so called, and
they onely used for Princes or great E
states, such as had their footmen about
them. And for example to note, I
reade that Richard the second being
threatned by the Rebels of Kent, rode
from the Tower of London to the Miles-end,
and with him, his Mother, because
she was sicke and weake, in a Whirlicote,
the Earles of Buckingham,5 Kent,6 War
, and Oxford,7 Sir Thomas Percie,
Sir Robert Knowles, the Maior of London,
Sir Aubery de Vere that bare the Kings
sword, with other Knights and Esquiers
attending on horsebacke. It followed
in the next yeere, that the said King
, who took to wife Anne, daugh
ter to the King of Boheme,8 that then was,
first brought hither the riding upon side
Riding on side Sad
dles, that were wont to ride a stride.
and so was the riding in those
Whirlicotes and Chariots forsaken; ex
cept at Coronations and such like spe
ctacles. But now of late yeeres, the use
of Coaches, brought out of Germany,
Riding in Coaches.
taken up, and made so common, as there
is neither distinction of time, nor diffe
rence of persons observed: for the
world runnes on wheeles with many,
whose Parents were glad to goe on
Last of all, mine Author, in this
Chapter hath these words: Most part
of the Bishops, Abbots, and great Lords of
the land, as if they were Citizens and Free
men of
Lond. had many faire houses to re
sort unto, and many rich & wealthy Gentle
men spent their money there
. And in ano
ther place, he hath these words: Every
Sunday in
Lent, a fresh company of young
men comes into the fields on horsebacke,
and the best horsemen conduct the rest,
then march forth the Citizens Sonnes, and
other yong men with disarmed Launces and
Shields, and practise feats of Warre. Many
Courtiers likewise, and attendants on No
blemen, repaire to this exercise, and whilest
the hope of victory doth inflame their minds;
they doe shew good proofe, how serviceable
they would bee in Martiall affaires, &c
Againe he saith, This Citie, in the trou
time of King Stephen, shewed at
a Muster 20000. armed horsemen, and
40000. footmen, serviceable for the Wars,
. All which sayings of the said Au
thor well considered, doe plainly prove,
that in those dayes, the inhabitants and
repairers to this City (of what estate so
ever, spirituall or temporall) having
houses here, lived in amity with the
Citizens, every man observing the cu
stomes and orders of the City, and
chose to be contributary to charges here,
rather than in any part of the land
The causes of greater shewes and musters in this City of old time, more than of late.
This City being the heart
of the Realme, the Kings Chamber, and
Princes seat, whereunto they made re
paire, and shewed their forces, both of
Horses and of men, which caused in
troublesome time, as of King Stephen,
the Musters of this City to be so great
in number.
Great Families of old time kept.
ANd here to touch somewhat of
great Families and households,
Great fa
milies of old time kept.

kept in former times by Noble
men, and great estates of this Realme,
according to their honors and dignities.
I have seene an account made by Henry

Of Orders and Customes.
Leicester, Cofferer to Thomas Earle of
Tho. Earle of Lanca
, his housekee
ping and charge thereof for one yeere.
for one whole yeeres expen
ces in the Earles house, from the day
next after Michaelmasse, in the seventh
yeere of Edward the second
, untill Mi
in the eight yeere of the same
, amounting to the summe of seven
Record of Pontfract, as I could obtaine of M. Cudnor.
nine hundred, fifty seven
pound, thirteene shillings, foure pence
halfe penny, as followeth.
To wit, in the Pantry, Buttry, and
Kitchin, 3405. l. &c.
For 184. Tuns, 1. pipe of Red or Cla
ret wine, and one Tun of White wine,
bought for the house 104. l. 17. s.
6. d.
For Grocery ware, 180. l. 17. s.
For sixe Barrels of Sturgeon, nine
teene pound.
For 6800. Stockfishes, so called, and
for dryed fishes, of all sorts, as Lings,
Haberdines, and other, 41. l. 6. s. 7. d.
For 1714. pound Waxe, with Ver
milion and Turpentine to make red
Wax, 314. l. 7. s. 4. d. ob.
For 2319. pound of Tallow candles
for the houshold, and 1870. of lights
for Paris candles, called Perchers, 31. l. 14. s. 3. d.
Expences on the Earles great Horses,
and the Keepers wages, 486. l. 4. s. 3.
d. ob.
Linnen cloth for the Lord and his
Chaplaines, and for the Pantry 43. l.
17. d.
Fro 129. dozen of Parchment, with
Inke, 4. l. 8. s. 3 ob.
Summe. 1230. l’. 17. d. 7. d. ob.
Item, for two clothes of Scarlet for
the Earle against Christmasse,
159. Cloths in Liveries a
gainst Christmas.
cloth of Russet, for the Bishop of Anjou,
70. cloths of blew for the Knights, (as
they were then tearmed) 15. clothes of
Medley for the Lords clerks, 28. cloths
for the Esquires, 15. cloths for Officers,
19. clothes for Groomes, 3. clothes for
Archers, 4. clothes for Minstrels and
Carpenters, with the sharing and car
riage for the Earles Liveries at Christ
mas, 460. l. 15. d.
Item, for 7. Furs of variable Miniver
(or powdred Ermin) 7. Hoods of pur
ple, 395. Furs of Budge, for the Live
ries of Barons, Knights, and Clerkes,
123. Furres of Lambe, for Esquires,
bought at Christmas, 147. l. 17. s. 8. d.
Item, 65. clothes Saffron colour,
104. cloths in Live
ries in summer.
the Barons and Knights: in summer,
12. red clothes mixt, for Clerks, 26
clothes ray, for Esquires, one cloth ray,
for Officers coats in summer, and foure
clothes ray, for carpets in the Hall, 345. l. 13. s. 8. d.
Item, 100. peeces of greene silke for
the Knights, 14. Budge Furs for sur
cotes, 13. hoods of Budge for Clerkes,
and 75. Furs of Lambs, for the Lords
liveries in summer, with Canvas and
cords to trusse them, 72. l. 19. s.
Item, Saddles for the Lords liveries
in summer, 51. l. 6. s. 8. d.
Item, for one Saddle for the Earle, of
the Princes armes 40. s.
Summe. 1079. l. 18. s. 3. d.
Item, for things bought, whereof no
thing can bee read in my note, 241. l.
14. s. 1. d. ob.
For horses lost in service of the Earle
8. l. 6. s. 8. d.
Fees paid to Earles, Barons, Knights,
and Esquires, 623. l. 15. s. 5. d.
In gifts to Knights of France, the
Queene of Englands Nurces, to the
Countesse of Warren, Esquires, Min
strels, Messengers and riders, 92. l.
14. s.
Northern Russet halfe yard and halfe quarter broad, I have seen sold for foure pence the yard, and was good cloth of a mingled colour.
168. yards of Russet cloth, and
24. coats for poore men, with money
given to the poore on Maundy Thurs
day, 8. l. 16. s. 7. d.
Item, 24 silver Dishes, so many saw
cers, and so many Cups for the Buttry,
one paire of Pater nosters, and one silver
coffen bought this yeere, 103. l. 5. s.
6. d.
To divers Messengers about the
Earles businesse, 34. l. 19. s. 8. d.
In the Earles Chamber 5. l.
To diuers men for the Earles old
debts, 88. l. 16. s. ob. q.
Summe. 1270. l. 7. s. 11. d. ob. q.
The expences of the Countesse at
Pickering, for the time of this account,
as in the Pantry, Buttry, Kitchin, and
other places concerning these Offices,
two hundred, fourescore and 5. pounds
thirteene shillings, halfe penny.
In Wine, Waxe, Spices, Clothes,
Furs, and other things for the Countes
ses Wardrobe, an hundred fifty foure
pounds, seven shillings, foure pence,
halfe penny.

Of Orders and Customes.

Summe. 439. l. 8. s. 6. d. q.
Summa totalis of the whole expences, 7957
l’ 13. s. 4. d. ob.
This much for this Earle of Lancaster.
Record Tower.
I read that in the 14. of the
same Edward the second
Hugh Spen
the el
, his provision for house-keeping, which sheweth a great fa
mily to be kept in houshold.
Hugh Spencer
the elder
(condemned by the comunal
ty) was banished the Realme, at which
time, it was found by inquisition, that
the said Spencer had in sundry shires. 59.
Mannors, He had 28000. sheep, 1000.
Oxen and Streeres, 1200. Kine with
their Calves, 40. Mares with their
Colts, 160. drawing horse, 2000.
Hogges, 300. Bullocks, 40. Tuns of
Wine, 600. Bacons, 80. Carkases of
Martilmasse Beefe, 600. Muttons in
Larder, 10. Tuns of Sidar. His Armor,
plate, jewels, ready mony, better than
10000. pound, 36. sacks of Wooll, and
a Library of Bookes. Thus much the
Record: which provision for houshold,
sheweth a great Family there to bee
This text has been supplied. Reason: Dirt on the page, tearing, etc. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on an external source. (JZ)Neerer to our time,
Rob. Fabian manuscript.
I read in the 36.
of Henry the sixt
, that the greater estates
of the Realme being called up to Lon
The Earle of Salisbury9 came up to
London with 500. men on horsebacke,
and was lodged in the Herber.
Richard Duke of Yorke with 400. men
lodged at Baynards Castle.
The Duke of Excester10 and Sommerset.11
with 800. men.
The Earle of Northumberland,12 the
Lord Egremont,13 and the Lord Clifford,14
with 1500. men.
Richard Nevell,
Nevell Earle of Warwicke his house keeping.
Earle of Warwicke,
with 600. men all in red Iackets, Im
brodered with ragged staves before and behinde, and was lodged in Warwicke
: in whose house there was often
times sixe Oxen eaten at a breakefast,
and every Taverne was full of his meat,
for he that had any acquaintance in that
house might have there so much of sod
den and rost meat, as hee could pricke
and carry upon a long Dagger.
Richard Redman,
Richard Redman Bishop of Ely.
Bishop of Ely, 1500.
the 17. of Henry the seventh, besides his
great family, housekeeping, Almes
dish, and reliefe to the poore, whereso
ever he was lodged. In his travaiing,
when at his comming, or going to or
from any Towne, the Bels being rung,
all the poore would come together, to
whom he gave every one sixe pence at
the least.
And now to note of our owne time
The wor
thy house keeping of Thomas Woolsey Lord Arch
bishop of Yorke.
Not omitting in this Tho
mas Woolsey
, Archbishop of Yorke, and
Cardinall. You shall understand, that
hee had in his hall (continually) three
tables or boords, kept with three prin
cipall Officers, to wit, a Steward, who
was alwaies a Priest, a Treasurer a
Knight, and a Controler an Esquire.
Also a Cofferer, being a Doctor, three
Marshals, three Yeomen Vshers in the
Hall: besides two Groomes and Alm
ners. Then in the Hall kitchin, two
Clerks of the kitchin, a Clerke con
troler, a Survevor of the dressor, a clark
of the Spicery: all which (together)
kept also a continuall Messe in the Hall.
Officers for the Hall kit

Also, in his Hall-kitchin, he had of Ma
ster cookes two, and of other cookes,
Master-Cookes and other.
and children of the kitchin,
twelve persons: foure Yeomen of the
ordinary scullery, foure Yeomen of the
silver scullery, two Yeomen of the Pa
stry, with two other Pastelers under the
In the Privie kitchin,
For the Privy kit
he had a Ma
ster cooke, who went daily in Velvet
and Sattin, with a chaine of Gold about
his necke, and two other Yeomen, and
a Groome.
Scalding house, Pantry, Buttry.
In the scalding house, a
Yeomen and two Groomes. In the
Pantry, two Yeoman. In the Buttery,
two Yeomen,
two Groomes, and two
In the Chandery two Yeomen.
In the Wafary two Yeomen.
Wardrobe of beds.
In the
Wardrobe of Beds, the Master of the
VVardrobe, and tenne other persons
In the Laundery a Yeoman,
a Groome, thirty Pages, two Yeomen
and one Groome. In the
Bake-house a Yeoman and 2 Groomes.
In the Wood-yard a Yeoman and a
VVood-yaThis text has been supplied. Reason: The ink has faded, obscuring the text. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on an external source. (JZ)rd.
In the Barne one.
In the Gar
den a Yeoman and two Groomes:
Yeoman of his Barge;
a Master of his
Horse, a Clerke of the Stable,
a Yeoman
of the same; the Saddler; the Farriar;
a Yeoman of his Chariot; a Sumpter
man,; a Yeoman of his Stirrop; a Mule
ter, and sixteen Groomes of his Stable,
every one of them keeping 4. Geldings.
Porters at his gate,
two Yeomen and

Of Orders and Customes.

two Groomes. In the Almnorie, a Yeo
man and a Groome.
In his Chappell he had a Deane,
The order of his Chappell.
great Divine, and a man of excellent
learning: a Subdeane, a repeater of the
Quire, a Gospeller, a Pisteler, of sin
ging Priests ten, a master of the chil
dren, twelve Seculars, being singing
of the Chappell; ten singing chil
dren, with a servant to attend upon the
children. In the Revestry, a Yeoman
and two Groomes; over and beside di
vers retainers, that came thither at
principall Feasts.
For the furniture of his Chappell,
The rich furniture of his Chappell.
exceedeth my cpacity to declare, or to
speake of the number of costly orna
ments and rich Jewels that were used
in the same continually. There hath bin
seene in procession about the Hall, foure
and forty very rich Coaps worne, all of
one sute; besides the rich Crosses and
Candlesticks, and other ornaments be
longing to the furnishment of the same.
He had two Crosse-bearers, and two
Pillar-bearers in his great Chamber.
Crosse-bearers & pillar-bearers.

And in his Privie-chamber these per
sons: First, the chiefe Chamberlaine
and Vice-chamberlaine.
His privie chamber.
Of Gentlemen
Vshers (beside one in his Privie-cham
ber) he had twelve daily waiters: and
of Gentlemen waiters,
Gentlemē waiters.
in his Privie-Chamber,
Lords and their at
he had six; of Lords nine or
tenne, who had (each of them) two men
allowed to attend upon them: except
the Earle of Darby,15 who alwaies was al
lowed 5. men. Then had he of Gentle
mē, Cupbearers, Carvers, Sewers, both
of the Privie chamber and of the great
For the privie and great chamber.
with Gentlemē (daily waiters
there) 40. persons. Of Yeomen Vshers 6.
of Groomes in his chamber, 8. of Yeo
men in his chamber 45. daily. He had al
so Almes-men, sometime more in num
ber than at other times.
There was attending on his Table
Daily attendāts on his Table.
of Doctors and Chaplaines, (be
side them of his Chappell) 16. A Clerk
of his Closet, two Secretaries, 2 Clerks
of his Signet; and foure Counsellours,
learned in the Lawes. And forasmuch
as it was necessary to have divers Offi
cers of the Chancery to attend upon
Officers of the Chan
that is to say, the Clerke of the
Crowne, a riding Clerke, a Clerke of
the Hamper, and a Clerke of the Wax;
then a Clerke of the Checke, (aswell
vpon the Chaplaines, as on the Yeomen
of his chamber,) he gave allowance to
them all.
His Foot
He had also foure Footmen,
who were clothed in rich running coats,
whensoever hee rode on any journey.
Then had he an Herauld at Armes,
A Herald and Ser
jeant at Armes.
Serjeant at Armes, a Physician, an A
pothecarie, foure Minstrels, a keeper of
his Tents, an Armorer, an instructor of
his Wards, two Yeomen of his Ward-robe
of Robes, and a keeper of his cham
ber continually in the Court. He had
also in his house the Survey or of Yorke,
Surveyor of Yorke, & Clerke of the Greene-cloth.

and a Clerke of the Greene cloth. All
these were daily attending, downe ly
ing and uprising; as we use to say, and at
meales. He kept in his great chamber,
a continuall Table for the Chamberers
and Gentlemen Officers: having with
them a Messe of the yong Lords,
Yong Lords and Gentlemē
and an
other of Gentlemen. And besides all
these, there was never an Offices, Gen
tleman, or other worthy person, but
hee was allowed in the house,
Attendāts allowed in the house.
three, some two, and all other, one at
the least, which grew to a great number
of persons.
Thus farre out of the Checke-roll:
besides other Officers, servants and re
tainers, and Suiters, that most common
ly dined in the Hall.
Nicholas West,
Lib. Ely.
Bishop of Ely, in the
yeere 1532. kept continually in his
house 100. servants,
West, Bi
shop of Ely
giving to the one
halfe of them 53. s. 4. d. apiece yeerly:
to the other halfe, each 40. s. apiece: to
every one for his winter Gowne, foure
yards of broadcloath, and for his Sum
mer Coat three yards and an halfe. He
daily gave at his Gates, besides bread
and drinke, warme meate to two hun
dred poore people.
The house-keeping of Edward late
Earle of Darby is not to be forgotten,
Edward, Earle of Darby.

who had 220. men in check-roll: his
feeding aged persons twice every day,
60. and odde, beside all commers, thrice
a weeke appointed for his dealing daies,
and every Good-friday, 2700. with
meat, drinke, and money.
Thomas Audley, Lord Chancellour,
his family of Gentlemen before him, in
coats garded with velvet, and chaines of
gold, his Yeomen after him, in the same
Livery not garded.

Sports and Pastimes.
William Powlet or Pawlet,
Every Li
very coat had three yards of bread cloth.
Lord great
Master, Marquesse of Winchester, kept
the like number of Gentlemen and yeo
men, in a Livery of Reading tawny, and
great reliefe at his gate.
Thomas Lord Cromwell, Earle of Es
, kept the like or greater number in
a Livery of gray Marble; the Gentle
men guarded with Velvet, the Yeomen
with the same cloth, yet their skirts
large enough for their friends to sit
upon them.
Duke of Sommerset.
Duke of Sommerset was not
inferiour in keeping a number of tall
and comely Gentlemen and Yeomen,
though his house was then in building,
& most of his men were lodged abroad.
The Earle of Oxford16 hath beene no
ted within these fifty yeeres,
Earle of Oxford.17
to have
ridden into this Citie, and so to his
house by London-stone, with fourescore
Gentlemen in a Livery of Reading Taw
ny, and chaines of gold about their
necks, before him; and one hundred tall
Yeomen in the like Livery to follow
him, without Chaines, but all having
his Cognizance of the blew Bore, em
broydered on their left shoulder.
Of charitable Almes in old time given.
THese, as all other of their times,
gave great reliefe to the poore.
I my self, in that declining time
of charity,
Almes gi
ven at the Lord Crom
s gate.
have oft seene at the Lord
s gate in London, more than 200
persons, served twice every day with
bread, meat and drinke sufficient; for
he observed that ancient and charitable
custome, as all Prelates, Noblemen, or
men of honour and worship his pre
decessours, had done before him: wher
of somewhat to note for example: Ve
nerable Bede writeth; that Prelates of
his time, having peradventure but
woodden Churches, had (notwithstan
ding) on their boord at their meales,
one Almes dish, into the which was
carved some good portion of meat, out
of every other dish brought to their Ta
ble, all which was given to the poore,
besides the fragments left. Insomuch as
in a hard time, a poore Prelate wanting
victuals, hath caused his Almes dish, be
ing silver, to be divided amongst the
poore, therewith to shift as they could,
till God should send him better store.
Such a Prelate was Ethelwald, Bishop
of Winchester, in the reigne of King Ed
, about the yeere of Christ, 963. He
in a great famine, sold away all the sa
cred vessels of his Church,
Bishop of Winchester18 his saying touching the reliefe oThis text has been supplied. Reason: Type not (sufficiently) inked. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on evidence internal to this text (context, etc.). (CH)f the poore.
for to relieve
the almost starved people, saying: That
there was no reason that the senselesse Tem
ples of God should abound in riches, and
lively Temples of the Holy Ghost to lacke it
Walter de Suffilde, Bishop of Norwich,
was of the like minde,
Bishop of Norwich19 sold his plate.
about the yeere
1245. In a time of great dearth, he sold
all his Plate, and distributed it to the
poore every penniworth.
Robert Winchelsey,
shop of Canturbury20 his charity
Archbishop of Can
, about the yeere 1293. besides
the daily fragments of his house, gave
every Friday and Sunday to every beg
gar that came to his gate, a loate of
bread sufficient for that day, and there
were usually every such almes day in
time of dearth, to the number of 5000.
and otherwise 4000 at the least. More,
hee used every great Feastivall day, to
give 150. pence to so many poore peo
ple, and sent daily meat, bread, and
drinke, to such as by age, or sicknes, were
not able to fetch his Almes, and did send
meat, money and apparell to such as he
thought needed it.
I reade in 1171. that Henry the se
Pater de Ioham. Tenne thousand poore people daily fed and sustai
ned by Henry the third.
after his returne into England, did
penance for the slaughter of Thomas Bec
, by whom (a sore dearth then in
creasing) ten thousand persons, from the
firſt of April; till new corne was inned,
were daily fed and sustained.
More I finde recorded, that in the
yeere 1236. the 20. of Henry the third,
Record of the Tower Hen. 3. fed 6000. poore people in one day.
William de Haverhull, the Kings Trea
surer, was commanded, that upon the
day of the Circumcision of our Lord,
6000. poore people should bee fed at
Westminster, for the state of the King,
Queene, and their children. The like
commandement the said King Henry
gave to Hugh Gifford, & William Brown,
that upon Friday next after the Epipha
, they should cause to be fed in the
great Hall at Windsore, at a good fire, all
the poore & needy children that could
be found, and the Kings children being
weighed and measured, their weight
and measure to be distributed for their
good estates. These few examples for
charity of Kings may suffice.
I read

Sports and Pastimes.

I read in the reigne of Edward the 3.
that Richard de Berry,
Richard de Berry, Bi
shop of
Bishop of Durham,
did weekely bestow for releefe of the
poore, eight quarters of wheat made
into bread, besides his Almes dish, frag
ments of his house, and great summes
of money given to the poore when hee
journied. And that these Almes dishes
were as well used at the Tables of No
blemen, as of the Prelates, one note may
suffice in this place.
I read in the yeere 1452. that Richard
Duke of York then claiming the Crown,
the Lord Rivers21 should have passed the
Sea about the Kings busines, but staying
at Plinouth till his money was spent,
and then sending for more;
Duke of Gloucesters22 Almes dish con
tained a great quantity of silver.
the Duke of
Somerset23 sent him the Image of S. George
in silver and gold, to be sold, with the
Almes dish of the Duke of Gloucester,24
which was also of great price: for coyne
had they none.
To end the Orders and Customes in
this Citie, as also of great families kept
by honourable persons thither repai
ring, and of charitable Almes of old
time given: I say, for conclusion, that
all Noble persons, and other of honour
and worship, in former times lodging
in this Citie, or liberties thereof, did
without grudging, beare their parts in
charges with the Citizens, according to
their estimated estates, as I have be
fore said, and could prove it by exam
But let men call to minde Sir Thomas
Tho. Crom
at the great Muster.
then Lord Privie Seale, and
Vicar generall, lying in the Citie of Lon
, he bare his charges to the great Mu
ster there, consisting of 15000, besides
Whisslers and other waiters, all in
bright harnesse, with coats of white
silke or cloth, and chaines of gold, in
three great battels.
In Anno 1539. hee sent his men (in
great number) to the Miles end, and af
ter them their Armour in Carres, with
their coats of white cloth, and the
Armes of this Citie, to wit, a red crosse
and a sword, on the brest and backe,
which Armour and Coats they ware a
mongst the Citizens, without any dif
ference, and marched thorow the Citie
to Westminster.


  1. Stow refers either to Newgate or Aldersgate. (ML)
  2. I.e., Smithfield. (ML)
  3. According to the Merchant Taylors’ Company’s website, the Hosiers merged with the Merchant Taylors’ Company in 1551 (Company History). (JZ)
  4. The Paternosters, Beadmakers, and Text Writers were makers of Catholic icons. Outlawed under Edward VI and Elizabeth I, the guild was briefly revived in the reign of Mary I and subsequently dissolved. (ML)
  5. I.e., Thomas of Woodstock. (JZ)
  6. I.e., Thomas Holland. (JZ)
  7. I.e., Sir Aubrey de Vere. (JZ)
  8. I.e., Charles IV of Bohemia. (JZ)
  9. I.e., Richard Neville. (JZ)
  10. I.e., Henry Holland (ML)
  11. I.e., Henry Beaufort. (JZ)
  12. I.e., Henry Percy. (ML)
  13. I.e., Thomas Percy. (ML)
  14. I.e., John Clifford. (ML)
  15. I.e., Edward Stanley. (JZ)
  16. I.e., John de Vere. (ML)
  17. I.e., John de Vere. (ML)
  18. I.e., Æthelwold of Winchester. (ML)
  19. I.e., Walter of Suffield. (ML)
  20. I.e., Robert Winchelsey. (ML)
  21. I.e., Richard Woodville. (ML)
  22. I.e., Humphrey of Lancaster. (ML)
  23. I.e., Henry Beaufort. (ML)
  24. I.e., Humphrey of Lancaster. (ML)


Cite this page

MLA citation

Stow, John, Anthony Munday, Anthony Munday, and Humphrey Dyson. Survey of London (1633): Orders and Customs. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 7.0, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 05 May 2022, Draft.

Chicago citation

Stow, John, Anthony Munday, Anthony Munday, and Humphrey Dyson. Survey of London (1633): Orders and Customs. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 7.0. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed May 05, 2022. Draft.

APA citation

Stow, J., Munday, A., Munday, A., & Dyson, H. 2022. Survey of London (1633): Orders and Customs. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London (Edition 7.0). Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from Draft.

RIS file (for RefMan, RefWorks, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

A1  - Stow, John
A1  - Munday, Anthony
A1  - Munday, Anthony
A1  - Dyson, Humphrey
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London (1633): Orders and Customs
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
ET  - 7.0
PY  - 2022
DA  - 2022/05/05
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  -
UR  -
ER  - 

TEI citation

<bibl type="mla"><author><name ref="#STOW6"><surname>Stow</surname>, <forename>John</forename></name></author>, <author><name ref="#MUND1"><forename>Anthony</forename> <surname>Munday</surname></name></author>, <author><name ref="#MUND1"><forename>Anthony</forename> <surname>Munday</surname></name></author>, and <author><name ref="#DYSO1"><forename>Humphrey</forename> <surname>Dyson</surname></name></author>. <title level="a">Survey of London (1633): Orders and Customs</title>. <title level="m">The Map of Early Modern London</title>, Edition <edition>7.0</edition>, edited by <editor><name ref="#JENS1"><forename>Janelle</forename> <surname>Jenstad</surname></name></editor>, <publisher>U of Victoria</publisher>, <date when="2022-05-05">05 May 2022</date>, <ref target=""></ref>. Draft.</bibl>