Survey of London (1633): Gates

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Gates in the Wall of this Citie.
GAtes in the Wall of this
Citie of old time, were
foure:
Gates of London, 4. East, West, North, & South.
to wit, Ealdgate,
for the East, Aldersgate
for the North, Ludgate
for the West, and the Bridgegate over
the River of Thames for the South; but
of later times, for the ease of Citizens
and passengers, divers other Gates and
Posternes have beene made, as shall be
shewed.
In the reigne of Henry the second
(saith Fitzstephen) there were seven double
gates in the wall of this City
,
Seven double gates in the wall of this Citie.
but he na
meth them not. It may therefore bee
supposed, hee meant for the first, the
Gate next the Tower of London, now
commonly called, the Posterne: the next,
to be Ealdgate; the third, Bishopsgate;
the fourth, Aldersgate; the fift, Newgate;
the sixth, Ludgate; the seventh, Bridge
gate
.
Other gates buil
ded beside.
Since the which time hath been buil
ded the Posterne called Mooregate, a Po
sterne from Christs Hospitall towards
S. Bartholomewes Hospitall, &c. Now
of every of these Gates, and Posternes
in the Wall, and also of certaine water
gates over the River of Thames, several
ly somewhat may, and shall be noted,
as I finde authority, or reasonable con
jecture to warrant me.
The first Gate Eastward.
FOr the first, now called the Po
sterne
by the Tower of London
, it
sheweth by that part which yet
remaineth, to have beene a faire and
strong arched Gate, partly builded of
hard stone of Kent, and partly of stone
brought from Cane in Normandy, since
the Conquest, and foundation of the
high Tower, and served for passengers
on foot out of the East, from thence
through the Citie to Ludgate in the
West. The ruine and overthrow of this
Gate and Posterne began in the yeere
1190. the second of Richard the first,
when William Longshampe, Bishop of
Ely, Chancelour S. England, caused a
part of the Citie Wall; to wit, from
the said Gate towards the River of
Thames
, to the white Tower, to be bro
ken downe,
Wall em
battelled about the Tower of London.
for the enlarging of the
said Tower, which he then incompassed
farre wide about with a Wall embattel
led, and is now the outer Wall. He al
so caused a broad and deepe ditch to be
made without the same Wall, inten
ding, to have derived the River of
Thames
with her Tides, to have flowed
about it, which would not be. But the
South side of this Gate, being then by
undermining at the foundation loosed,
and greatly weakned; at length, to wit,
after 200. yeeres and odde,
Posterne fell downe.
the same
fell downe, in the yeere 1440. the 18.
of Henrie the sixth
, and was never since
by the Citizens re-edified. Such was
their negligence then, which hath bred
some trouble to their successors; since,
they suffered a weake and woodden
building to bee there made, inhabited
by persons of lewd life, often by inquest
of Portsoken Ward presented, but not re
formed: whereas in former times, the
said Posterne was accounted of, as other
Gates of the Citie, and was appointed
to men of good credit. Amongst other,
I have read, that in 49. Ed. 3. Iohn Cobbe
was admitted Custos of the said Postern,
and all the habitation thereof, for terme
of his life, by W. Walworth, then Maior of
London, 1374. being the first time of his
Maioralty; for he was L. Maior againe
in An. 1380. More, that Iohn Credy E
squire, in the 21. of Rich. 2. was admit
ted Custos of the said Posterne and ap
purtenances, by R. Whittington, Maior,
the Aldermen and Communalty, &c.
THe next Gate in the East, is
called Ealdgate, of the antiquity
or age thereof. This is one, and
the first of the foure principall Gates,
and

Gates of this Citie.

and also one of the seven double Gates,
mentioned by Fitzstephen. It hath had
two paire of Gates, though now but
one, the hookes of them both remaine.
Also there hath beene two Portclo
ses, the one of them remained till the
new building of the Gate, the other
wanteth, and the place of letting downe
was manifest. For Antiquity of the
Gate, it appeareth by a Charter of King
Edgar
,
Lib. Trinit.
to the Knights of Knighton Guild,
that in his dayes, the said Port was cal
led Ealdgate, as ye may read in the Ward
of Portsoken
. Also Matild the Queene,
wife to Henrie the first, having founded
the Priorie of the Holy Trinity within
Ealdgate
, gave to the same Church, to
Norman, the first Prior, and the Canons
that devoutly served God there in the
Port of Ealdgate,
Soke or Court.
the Soke or Franches
thereunto belonging, with all customes,
as free as shee held the same. In the
which Charter, she nameth the House
Christs Church, and reporteth Ealdgate
to be of its demaine.
More, I read in the yeere 1215. that
in the civill Warres betweene King
Iohn
and his Barons, the Londoners assi
sting the Barons faction, who then be
sieged Northampton, and after came to
Bedford Castle, where they were well
received by William Beauchampe, and
Captane of the same: having then also
secret intelligence, that they might en
ter the Citie of London, if they would;
they removed their Campe to Ware,
from whence in the night comming to
London, they entred Ealdgate, and pla
cing guardians or keepers of the Gates,
they disposed of all things in the Citie
at their pleasure.
They spoiled the Friers houses,
Radul. Cogsh.
and
searched their coffers: which being
done, Robert Fitzwater, Ieffrey Magna
vile
, Earle of Essex, and the Earle of
Glocester, chiefe Leaders of the Armie,
applyed all diligence to repaire the
Gates and Walles of this Citie, with
the stones taken from the Iewes broken
houses; namely Ealdgate, being then
most ruinous, (which had given them
an easie entire) they repaired,
Ealdgate new buil
ded.
or rather
newly builded, after the manner of the
Normans, strongly arched, with bul
warkes of stone, brought from Cane in
Normandy, and small Bricke, called
Flanders tile, was brought from thence,
such as hath beene here used since the
Conquest, and not before.
In the yeere 1471. the 11. of Edward
the 4.
Thomas the Bastard Fawconbridge,
having assembled a riotous companie
of Shipmen and other,
Thomas L. Fawcon
bridge set upon Eald
gate
.
in Essex and
Kent, came to London with a great Na
vie of Ships, neere to the Tower: where
upon the Maior and Aldermen, by con
sent of a common Councell, fortified
all along the Thames side, from Bainards
Castle
to the Tower, with armed men,
Gunnes, and other instruments of war,
to resist the invasion of the Mariners,
whereby the Thames side was safely pre
served and kept, by the Aldermen and
other Citizens, that assembled thither
in great numbers. Whereupon the Re
bels being denyed passage thorow the
Citie that way, set upon Ealdgate, Bi
shopsgate
, Creplegate, Aldersgate, London
bridge
, and along the River of Thames;
shooting arrowes and gunnes into the
Citie,
Suburbs burnt.
fired the Suburbs, and burned
more than threescore houses. And fur
ther, on Sunday the eleventh of May,
five thousand of them assaulting Eald
gate
, wanne the Bulwarkes,
Rebels wanne the Bulwarks of Ealdgate.
and entred
the Citie; but the Portclose being let
downe, such as had entred, were slaine:
and Robert Basset, Alderman of Ealdgate
Ward
, with the Recorder, comman
ded in the Name of God to draw up
the Portclose: which being done, they
issued out, and with sharpe shot and
fierce fight, put their enemies backe so
farre as Saint Buttolphus Church; by
which time the Earle Rivers, and the
Lieutenant of the Tower,
Lieutenāt of the Tower as
sisted the Citizens against the Rebels.
was come
with a fresh companie; which joyning
together, discomfited the Rebels, and
put them to flight; whom the afore
said Robert Basset, with other Citizens,
chased unto the Miles end, and from
thence, some to Popular, some to Strat
ford
; slew many, and tooke many of
them prisoners. In the meane while,
the Bastard having assaied other pla
ces upon the Water side, and little
prevailing, fledde towards his Ships.
Thus much for Ealdgate, as it was, and
continued in those elder dayes: But
the new building thereof remaineth till
I come to speake of the Ward wherein
the same Gate is situated.

Gates of this Citie.
THe third and next Gate toward
the North, is called Bishopsgate:
for that (as it may be supposed)
the same was first builded by some Bi
shop of London; though now unknown,
when, or by whom: but true it is, that
this Gate was first builded for the ease
of passengers toward the East, and by
North; as into Norfolke, Suffolke, Cam
bridge-shire, &c
. The travellers into
which parts (before the building of this
Gate) were forced (passing out at Eald-gate)
to goe East till they came unto the
Miles end, and then turned on the left
hand to Blethenhall-greene, to Cambridge-heath,
and so North, or East and by
North, as their journies lay. If they
tooke not this way,
A further way win
ding a
bout.
by the East out at
Ealdgate, they must then take their way
by the North out at Aldersgate, through
Aldersgatestreet, and Goswellstreet, to
wards Iseldon, and by a crosse of stone
on their right hand, set up for a marke
by the North end of Golding-lane, to
turne eastward through a long street,
unto this day called Alderstreet, to ano
ther crosse then there standing, where
now a Smiths forge is placed, by Sewers
ditch Church
; and then to turne againe
North towards Totenham, Enfield, Wal
tham
, Ware, &c.
The eldest note that I read of this
Bishopsgate, is, that Wiliam Blund one of
the Shiriffes of London, in the yere 1210
sold to Serle Mercer, & william Almaine,
Procurators or Wardens of London
Bridge
,
Lib. Trim.
all his Land, with the Garden,
in the Parish of Saint Buttolph without
Bishopsgate
, between the Land of Richard
Casiarin
, towards the North, and the
Land of Robert Crispie towards the
South, and the high-way called Beare
wards lane
on the East, &c.
Next,
Charter.
I read in a Charter, dated the
yeere 1235. that Walter Brune, Citizen
of London, and Rosia his Wife, having
founded the Priorie or new Hospitall
of our blessed Lady
, since called S. Ma
ry Spittle
, without Bishopsgate
, confirmed
the same to the honour of God and our
blessed Lady, for Canons regular.
Also in the yeere 1247. Simeon Fitz-
Mary
,
Record.

one of the Shiriffes of London,
in the 29. of Henrie the third, founded
the Hospitall of S. Mary called Bethlem,
without Bishopsgate
. Thus much for
antiquity of this Gate.
And now for repairing the same:
Reparati
ons of Bishopsgate.
I
finde, that Henry the 3. confirmed to
the Merchants of the Haunce, that had a
house in the Citie, called Gildalla Theu
tonicorum
, certaine Liberties and Pri
viledges: Edward the first also confir
med the same; in the tenth yeere of
whose reigne
it was found, that the said
Merchants ought of right to repaire the
said Gate, called Bishopsgate.
Whereupon Gerard Marbod, Alder
man of the Haunce, and other, then re
maining in the Citie of London, for
themselves and all others, Merchants
of the said Haunce, granted 210. markes
sterling to the Maior and Citizens: and
covenanted, that they and their succes
sors should (from time to time) repaire
the same Gate.
Bishopsgate new buil
ded.
This Gate was againe
beautifully builded in the yeere 1479.
in the reigne of Edward the fourth, by
the said Hannce Merchants.
Moreover,
Bishopsgate provided to have been new builded.
in the yeere 1551. These
Haunce Merchants, having prepared
stone for that purpose, caused a new
Gate to be framed, there to have beene
set up: but then their liberties, through
suit of our English Merchants, were sea
zed into the Kings hand, and so that
worke was stayed, and the old Gate yet
remaineth.
Posterne of Mooregate.
TOuching the next Posterne, cal
led Mooregate,
Posterne called Mooregate.
I finde, that Tho
mas Falconer
, Maior about the
yeere 1415. the third of Henry the 5.
caused the Wall of the Citie to be bro
ken neere unto Colemanstreet, and there
builded a Posterne now called Moore
gate
, upon the Mooreside, where was
never Gate before. This Gate he made
for ease of the Citizens, that way to
passe upon Cawseys into the Field for
their recreation:
The Field a meere marish ground.
for the same Field was
(at that time) a Marish. This Posterne
was re-edified by William Hampton,
Fishmonger, Maior, in the yeere 1472.
In the yeere also 1511. the third of Hen.
8.
Roger Achely Maior, caused Dikes
and Bridges to be made, and the ground
to be levelled, and made more commo
dious for passage; since which time the
same

Gates of this Citie.

same hath beene heightned so much,
that the Dikes and Bridges are covered:
and it seemeth to me, that if it be made
levell with the Battlements of the City
Wall, yet will it be little the dryer, such
was then the moorish nature of that
ground.
Posterne of Creplegate.
THe next is the Posterne of Cre
plegate
,
Posterne of Creple
gate
.
so called long before the
Conquest. For I reade in the
History of Edmund, King of the East
Angles, written by Abba Floriacensis, and
by Burchard, sometime Secretary to Of
fa
, King of Mertia; but since then, by
Iohn Lidgate, Monke of Bury, that in the
yeere 1010. the Danes spoiling the
Kingdome of the East Angles, Alwyne
Bishop of Helmeham, caused the body
of King Edmund the Martyr, to bee
brought from Bedrisworth, (now called
Bury S. Edmunds) through the King
dome of East Saxons, and so to London,
in at Creplegate. A place, saith mine
Author, so called of Cripples begging
there: and at which Gate, (it was said)
the body entring, miracles were wrought,
and some of the lame to goe upright,
praising God. The body of King Ed
mund
rested, for the space of three yeers,
in the Parish Church of Saint Gregory,
neere unto the Cathedrall Church of
Saint Paul
. Moreover, the Charter of
William the Conquerour, confirming
the foundation of the Colledge in Lon
don
, called Saint Martin the great, hath
these words: I doe give and grant to the
same Church
,
Liber S. Barlilmew.
and Canons serving GOD
therein, all the lands, and the Moore with
out the Posterne
, which is called Creple
gate
, on either part of the Posterne. More
I read, that Alfune builded the Parish
Church of S. Giles
, nigh a Gate of the
Citie, called Porta contractorum, or Crip
plesgate
, about the yeere 1090.
This Posterne was sometime a Pri
son,
Creplagate a prison for trespassers
whereunto such Citizens and o
thers, as were arrested for debt, or com
mon trespasses, were committed, as they
be now to the Compters. Which thing
appeareth by a Writ of Edward the first
in these words: Rex Vic. London salu
tem
.
Record.
Ex gravi querela B. capt. & detent.
in prisona nostra de Criplesgate pro x. l’.
quas coram Radulpho de Sandwico, tunc
Custod. Civitatis nostræ London, & I. de
Blackwell Civis recognit. debit. &c
.
This Gate was new builded by the
Brewers of London,
Creplegate new buil
ded.
in the yeere 1244.
as saith Fabians Manuscript.
Edmund Shaw Goldsmith, Maior in
the yeere one thouſand foure hundred
eighty three
, at his decease, appointed
by his Testament his Executors, with
the cost of foure hundred Markes, and
the stuffe of the old Gate, called Crip
plesgate
, to build the same Gate anew,
which was performed and done in the
yeere one thouſand foure hundred nine
ty one
.
THe next is Ældersgate or Alders
gate
, so called, not of Aldrich,
or of Elders, that is to say, an
cient men, builders thereof; nor of El
derne trees, growing there more abun
dantly than in other places, as some
have fabuled: but for the very antiqui
ty of the Gate it selfe,
In a booke called, Be
ware the Cat
.
as being one of
the first foure Gates of the Citie, and
serving for the Northerne parts, as
Ealdgate for the East; which two Gates
being both old Gates, are for difference
sake called, the one Ealdgate, and the o
ther Aldersgate. This is the fourth prin
cipall Gate, and hath at sundry times
beene increased with buildings; name
ly, on the South side, or inner side, a
great frame of Timber hath beene ad
ded and set up, containing divers large
roomes and lodgings. Also on the East
side, is the addition of one great buil
ding of Timber,
A Well of great depth at Aldersgate.
with one large floore,
paved with stone, or tile, and a Well
therein curbed with stone, of a great
depth, and rising into the said Roome,
two stories high from the ground:
which well is the onely peculiar note
belonging to that Gate; for I have not
seene the like in all this Citie, to be rai
sed so high. Iohn Day Stationer, a late
famous Printer of many good Bookes,
in our time dwelled in this Gate, and
builded much upon the Wall of the
Citie, towards the Parish Church of
Saint Anne
.
Concerning the late new building of
this Gate, we shall speake more there
of, in the description of the Ward.
Posterne

Gates of this Citie.
Posterne out of Christs Hospitall.
THen there is also a Posterne gate
made out of the Wall,
A Postern out of Christs Ho
spitall
.
on the
North side of the late dissolved
Cloister of Friers Minors, commonly
of their habit called Gray Friers, now
Christs Church and Hospitall.
This Posterne was made in the sixth
yeere of Edward the sixth
, to passe from
the said Hospitall of Christs Church, un
to the Hospitall of Saint Bartholomew in
Smithfield: and licence was given to the
Lord Maior and Aldermen, to breake
downe so much of the Cities Wall as
should suffice to make the same passage:
by vertue of an Act of common Coun
cell, made 1. Auguſti, Anno 6. E. 6. in
the Maioralty of Sir Richard Dobbes,
Knight.
THe next Gate on the West and
by North, is termed Newgate, a
latelier builded than the rest, &
is the fifth principall Gate. This Gate
was first erected about the reigne of
Henry the first
, or of King Stephen, upon
this occasion. The Cathedrall Church
of Saint Paul
,
Pauls Church in London new buil
ded.
being burnt about the
yeere 1086. in the Reigne of William
the Conqueror
, Mauritius, then Bishop
of London, repaired not the old Church,
as some have supposed; but began the
foundation of a new worke, such as men
then judged would never have beene
performed, it was to them so wonder
full for heighth, length, and breadth;
as also in respect it was raised upon Ar
ches or vaults, a kinde of workmanship
brought in by the Normans, and never
knowne to the Artificers of this Land
before that time, &c. After Mauritius,
Richard Beaumore did wonderfully ad
vance the worke of the said Church,
purchasing the large Streets and Lanes
round about, wherein were wont to
dwell many lay people; which grounds
he beganne to compasse about with a
strong wall of stone, and Gates.
By meanes of this increase of the
Church territory, but more by inclo
sing of ground for so large a Cœmitery,
or Church-yard; the high and large
Street, stretching from Ealdgate in the
East, to Ludgate in the West, was in
this place so crossed and stopped up,
that the carriage through the City
westward, was forced to passe without
the said Churchyard wall on the North
side, through Pater noster row, and then
South down Ave Marie lane, and againe
West through Bowyer row to Ludgate:
or else out of Cheape, or Wathelingstreete,
to turne South, through the old Change,
then West through Carter lane, againe
North up Creed lane, and then west to
Ludgate. Which passage, by reason of
so often turning, was very cumbersome
and dangerous, both for horse and man.
For remedy whereof, a new Gate was
made,
Newgate first buil
ded, and the cause why.
and so called, by which men and
cattell, with all manner of carriages,
might passe more directly (as before)
from Ealdgate, through West Cheape by
Pauls, on the North side, through S.
Nicholas shambles
and Newgate Market,
to Newgate: and from thence to any
part Westward over Oldborne-bridge, or
turning without the Gate into Smith
field
, and through Iseldon, to any part
North and by West.
This Gate hath of long time beene a
Gaole or Prison for Felons and Trespas
sers, as appeareth by Records in the
reigne of King Iohn, and of other Kings:
amongst the which, I finde one testify
ing, that in the yeere 1218. the third of
King Henry the third
,
Close Roll.
the King writeth
unto the Shiriffes of London,
Newgate a Gaole or prison
house.
comman
ding them to repaire the Gaole of New
gate
,
The King repaired it
for the safe keeping of his priso
ners, promising that the charges laid
out, should be allowed unto them upon
their accompt in the Exchequer.
Moreover, in the yeere 1241. the
Iewes of Norwich were hanged, for cir
cumcising a Christian child, their house
called the Thor, was pulled downe and
destroyed. Aaron, the sonne of Abra
ham
, a Iew, at London, and the other
Iewes were constrained to pay twenty
thousand Marks, at two Termes in the
yeere, or else to be kept perpetuall pri
soners in Newgate of London, and in o
ther prisons.
1255. King Henry the third lodged
in the Tower of London, upon displea
sure conceived towards the Citie of
London, for the escape of Iohn Offrem, a
prisoner, being a Clarke convict, out of
Newgate, which had killed a Prior that
was

Gates of this Citie.

was of alliance to the King, as Cousin
to the Queene: he sent for the Mayor
and Sheriffes to come before him, to an
swer the matter. The Maior laid the
fault from him to the Sheriffes, foras
much as to them belonged the keeping
of all prisoners within the Citie, and so
the Maior returned home; but the She
riffes remained there prisoners,
The She
riffes of London pri
soners in the Tower, for escape of a priso
soner out of Newgate
by the
space of a moneth and more; and yet
they excused themselves, in that the
fault chiefly rested in the Bishops Offi
cers: For whereas the prisoner was un
der custodie, they (at his request) had
granted licence, to imprison the offen
der within the Gaole of Newgate; but
so, as the Bishops Officers were charged
to see him safely kept. The King not
withstanding all this, demanded of the
Citie 3000. Marks for a fine.
In the yeere 1326. Robert Baldocke,
The Kings Chancel
lour priso
ner in Newgate.

the Kings Chancelour, was put in New
gate
the third of Edward the 3.
In the yeere 1237.1 Sir Iohn Poultney
gave foure Markes by the yeere, to the
reliefe of prisoners in Newgate.
In the yeere 1358. William Walworth
gave somewhat, to relieve the prisoners
in Newgate, so have many others since.
In the yeere 1414. the Gaolers of
Newgate and Ludgate dyed, and priso
ners in Newgate, to the number of 64.
In the yeere 1418. the Parson of Wor
tham
in Kent was imprisoned in New
gate
.
The yeere 1412. the first of Henry 6.
licence was granted to Iohn Coventre,
Ienken Carpenter, and William Grove, exe
cutors to Richard Whittington, to re-edi
fie the Gaole of Newgate,
Newgate new buil
ded.
which they
did with his goods.
Thomas Knowels, Grocer, sometimes
Maior of London, by licence of Reynold,
Prior of S. Bartholomews in Smithfield,
and also of Iohn Wakering, Master of the
Hospitall of S. Bartholomew, and his
brethren, conveyed the waste of water,
at the Cesterne neere unto the common.
Fountaine,
VVater conveyed to Newgate & Ludgate.
and Chappell of S. Nicholas,
(situate by the said Hospitall) to the
Gaoles of Newgate and Ludgate, for the
reliefe of the prisoners.
Tuesday next after Palme Sunday,
1431. all the prisoners of Ludgate were
conveyed into Newgate,
Prisoners of Ludgate removed to Newgate
by Walter Chart
sey
and Robert Large, Sheriffes of London.
And on the 13. April, the same She
riffes (through the false suggestion of
Iohn Kingesell, Gaoler of Newgate) did
fetch from thence 18. persons, freemen,
and these were led to the Compters pi
nioned, as if they had beene Felons. But
on the 16. of Iune, Ludgate was againe
appointed for freemen, prisoners for
debt, and the same day, the said free
men entred by ordinance of the Maior,
Aldermen and Commons, and by them
Henry Deane Taylor, was made keeper
of Ludgate.
In the yeere 1457. a great Fray was
in the North Countrey, betweene Sir
Thomas Percie
, Lord Egremond, and the
Earle of Salisburies Sonnes, whereby
many were maymed and slaine: but in
the end, the Lord Egremond being ta
ken, was by the Kings Councell found
in great default, and therefore condem
ned in great summes of money, to bee
payed to the Earle of Salisbury, and in
the meane time committed to Newgate.
Not long after,
L. Egre
mond
and others, brake pri
son out of Newgate.
Sir Thomas Percy Lord
Egremond, and Sir Richard Percie his
Brother, being in Newgate, brake out of
Prison by night, and went to the King,
the other prisoners tooke the Leads of
the Gate, and defended it (a long while)
against the Sheriffes and all their Of
ficers, insomuch that they were forced
to call more ayd of the Citizens, where
by at last they subdued them, and laid
them in Irons. And this may suffice for
Newgate.
IN the West is the next; and sixth
principall Gate, and is called Lud
gate
, at first builded (saith Geoffrey
Monmouth)
by King Lud, a Britaine, a
bout the yeere before Christs Nativity,
66. Of which building, and also of the
name, as Ludsgate or Fludsgate, hath bin
of late some question among the lear
ned, wherefore I overpasse it, as not to
my purpose; onely referring the Reader
to that I have before written out of
sar
s Commentaries, and other Romane
Writers, concerning a Towne or Citie
amongst the Britains. This Gate I sup
pose to be one of the most ancient; and
as Ealdgate was builded for the East, so
was this Ludsgate for the West. I read,
as I told you, that in the yeere 1215.
the

Gates of this Citie.

the 17. of King Iohn, the Barons of the
Realme, being in Armes against the
King, entred this Citie, and spoiled the
Iewes Houses: which being done, Ro
bert Fitzwater
, and Geffrey de Magna
villa
, Earle of Essex, and the Earle of
Glocester, chiefe leaders of the Armie,
applyed all diligence to repaire the
Gates and Wals of this Citie, with the
stones of the Iewes broken houses; espe
cially (as it seemeth) they then repaired
(or rather new builded) Ludgate.
Ludgate new built.
For in
the yeere 1586. when the same Gate
was taken downe, to bee new builded,
there was found couched within the
wall thereof, a stone taken from one of
the Iewes houses, wherein was graved
in Hebrew Characters,
Iewes hou
ses spoiled.
these words fol
lowing: הך מצב הר משה בן הרב ר יצחק Hæc est statio Rabbi Moses, filij insignis
Rabbi Isaac
: which is to say, This is the
Station or Ward of Rabbi Moses, the sonne
of the Honourable Rabbi Isaac
. And it had
beene fixed upon the front of one of the
Iewes houses, as a note or signe that such
an one dwelled there.
In the yeere 1260. this Ludgate was
repaired,
Patent.
and beautified with Images of
Lud, and other Kings, as appeareth by
Letters Patents of licence given to the
Citizens of London, to take up stone for
that purpose, dated the 25. of Henrie
the third
. These Images of Kings, in
the reigne of Edward the sixth, had
their heads smitten off, and were other
wise defaced, by such as judged every
Image to be an Idoll; and in the reigne
of Queene Mary
were repaired, as by
setting new heads on their old bodies,
&c. All which so remained, untill the
yeere 1586. the 28. of Queene Eliza
beth
,
Ludgate a
gaine new builded.
when the same Gate (being sore
decayed) was cleane taken downe, the
prisoners in the meane time remaining
in the large South-east quadrant of the
same Gate adjoyning; and the same
yeere, the whole Gate was newly and
beautifully builded, with the Images of
Lud and others (as afore) on the East
side, and the picture of her Majesty,
Queene Elizabeth,
Ludgate in
larged in the reigne of Queen Elizabeth.
on the West side.
All which was done at the common
charges of the Citizens, amounting to
1500. pounds, or more.
This gate was made a free Prison in
the yeere 1378. the first of Richard the
second
,
Ludgate a free pri
son.
Nicholas Bremer being Maior.
The same was confirmed in the yeere
1382. Iohn Northampton being Maior,
Record Guildhall.

by a Common Councell in the Guild
hall
: by which it was it was ordained, that all
free-men of this Citie, should for debt,
trespasses, accompts, and contempts,
be imprisoned in Ludgate; and for Trea
sons, Felonies, and other criminall offen
ces, committed to Newgate, &c.
In the yeere 1439. the tenth of King
Henrie the 6
. Iohn Wels being Maior, a
Court of common Councell established
ordinances, (as William Stanley and Ro
bert Chicheley
, late Maiors before had
done) touching the Guard and govern
ment of Ludgate, and other Prisons.
Also in the yeere 1463. the third of
Edward the fourth
, Mathew Philip be
ing Maior, in a common Councell, at
the request of the wel-disposed,
Memory of wor
thy wo
man.
blessed,
and devout Woman, Dame Agnes For
ster
, Widdow, late wife to Stephen For
ster
, Fishmonger, sometime Maior, for
the comfort and reliefe of all the poore
prisoners,
Articles for reliefe of the poore pri
soners in Ludgate.
certaine Articles were esta
blished. Imprimis, That the new workes,
then lately edified by the same
Dame Ag
nes
, for the enlarging of the Prison of Lud
gate
, from thenceforth should be had and
taken, as a part and parcell of the said Pri
son of
Ludgate, so that both the old and
new worke of
Ludgate aforesaid, to be one
Prison, Gaole, Keeping, and charge for ever
more
.
The said Quadrant,
The lēgth, bredth, & largenesse of the qua
drant.
strongly builded
of stone, by the forenamed Stephen For
ster
and Agnes his Wife, containing a
large walking-place by ground, of 38.
foot and an halfe in length, besides the
thicknesse of the wals, which are at the
least 6 foot, makes all together 44. foot
and an halfe; the breadth within the
wals is 29. foot and an halfe; so that the
thicknes of the wals maketh it 35. foot
and an halfe in breadth. The like roome
it hath over it for lodgings, and over it
againe faire Leads to walke upon, well
embattelled, all for fresh ayre, and ease
of prisoners, to the end they should have
lodging and water free without charge;
as by certaine Verses graven in Copper,
and fixed on the said Quadrant, I have
read,
At Ludgate engraved on a Cop
per plate.
in forme following:
Devout soules that passe this way,
E
For

Gates of this Citie.

For Stephen Forster, late Maior,
heartily pray,
And Dame Agnes his spouse,
to God consecrate,
That of pitty, this house made
for Londoners in Ludgate.
So that for lodging and water,
prisoners here nought pay,
As their keepers shall all answer
at dreadfull doomes-day.
This place, and one other of his
Armes, being 3. broad Arrow-heads,
taken downe with the old Gate, I cau
sed to be fixed over the entry of the said
Quadrant: but the verses being unhap
pily turned inward to the wall, procu
red the like in effect to be ingraven out
ward in prose, declaring him to bee a
Fishmonger, because some, upon a
light ocasion (as a Maydens head in a
glasse window) had fabled him to be a
Mercer, and to have begd there at Lud
gate
, &c. Thus much for Ludgate.
Next this,
A breach in the Wall against Bridewell.
there is a breach in the
Wall of the Citie, and a Bridge of
Timber over the Fleet-dike, betwixt
Fleet-bridge and Thames, directly over
against the house of Bridewell. Thus
much for the Gates in the Wall.
Water-gates on the banks of the Ri
ver Thames
,
Watergates.
have beene many, which
being purchased by private men, are al
so put to private use, and the old names
of them forgotten. But of such as re
maine, from the West, towards the
East, may be said as followeth.
The Blacke Friers stayres, a free lan
ding place.
Then a Water-gate at Puddle wharfe,
of one Puddle, that kept a wharfe on the
West side thereof, and now of Puddle
water, by meanes of many horses wa
tered there.
Then Paules wharfe, also a free lan
ding place with stayres, &c.
Then Broken wharfe, and other such
like.
But Ripa Regina, the Queenes Banke,
or Queene hithe, may well be accounted
the very chiefe and principall Water
gate of this Citie, being a common
strand or landing place, yet equall with,
and (of old time) farre exceeding Be
linsgate
, as shall be shewed in the Ward
of Queene Hithe
.
The next is Downgate, so called of the
sudden descending, or downe going of
that way, from Saint Iohns Church up
on Walbroke
unto the River of Thames,
whereby the water in the Chanell there
hath such a swift course, that in the
yeere 1574. on the fourth of September
after a strong showre of raine,
A Lad of 18 yeeres old drow
ned in a Channell at Downe
gate
.
a Lad of
the age of eighteene yeeres, minding to
have leapt over the Channell, was ta
ken by the feet, and borne downe with
the violence of that narrow streame,
and carried toward the Thames with
such a violent swiftnesse, as no man
could rescue or stay him, till hee came
against a Cart-wheele, that stood in the
Watergate, before which time, he was
drowned and starke dead.
This was sometime a large water-gate
frequented of ships, and other vessels,
like as the Queenes Hithe,
An inqui
sition con
cerning Dewnegate.
and was a part
thereof, as doth appeare by an inquisiti
on, made in the 28. yeere of Henry the
third
, wherein was found, That aswell
corne as fish, and all other things comming
to the
Port of Downgate, were to be orde
red after the customes of the
Queens Hith
for the Kings use.
Merchants of the Hanse, landed their corn betwixt their house and the Black Friers.
As also, that the corne
arriving betweene the gate of the
Guild
hall of the Merchants of Cullen
: the
(Stil-yard) which is East from Downe
gate
, and the house then pertaining to the
Archbishop of
Canterbury, west from Bai
nards Castle
; was to bee measured by the
measure, and measurer of the Queenes Soke,
or
Queen Hithe. I read also, in the 19.
of Edward the third
, That customes were
then to bee paid for ships and other ves
sels, resting at
Downgate, as if they roade
at
Queene Hith, and as they now doe
at Belinsgate. But now it is fallen to such
great decay, that not onely there is no
use made thereof, but also by reason
that the Water-gates are not repaired,
it is very dangerous to passengers
travelling through in the night season.
And thus much for Downegate may suf
fice.
The next was called Wolfes gate in
the Ropary
, in the Parish of Alhallowes
the lesse
, of later time called Wolfes
lane
, but now out of use: for the lower
part was builded on by the Earle of
Shrewsbury, and the other part was stop
ped up, and builded on by the Cham
berlaine of London.
The,

Gates of this Citie.

The next is Ebgate,
Lib. Horne.
a Water-gate so
called of old time,
Lib. S. Al
bane
.
as appeareth by di
vers Records of tenements, neere unto
the same adjoyning.
Lib. Trini
tat
.
It standeth neere
unto the Church of Saint Laurence
Pountney
,
Lib. S. Al
bane
.
but is within the Parish of
Saint Marten Ordegare
.
Record E. 3.
In place of
this gate, is now a narrow passage
to the Thames, and is called Ebgate
lane
, but more commonly the Old
Swanne
.
Then is there a Watergate at the
Bridge foot, called Oystergate, of Oy
sters that were there (of old time)
commonly to be sold, and was the chief
est Market for them, and for other shell
Fish. There standeth now an engine
or Forcier, for the winding up of wa
ter to serve the Citie, whereof I have
already spoken.
THe next is the Bridgegate, so cal
led of London Bridge, whereon
it standeth: This was one of the
foure first and principall Gates of the
Citie, long before the Conquest, when
there stood a Bridge of Timber; and
is the seventh and last principall Gate
mentioned by W. Fitzstephen,
The Bridg-Gate often times re
paired by divers good Be
nefactors.
which gate
being new made, when the Bridge was
builded of stone, hath beene often-times
since repayred. This Gate, with the
Tower upon it, in the yeere 1436. fell
downe, and two of the farthest Arches
Southwards also fell therewith, and no
man perished or was hurt thereby. To
the repayring whereof, divers wealthy
Citizens gave large summes of money,
namely Robert Large, sometime Maior,
100. Markes, Stephen Forster, 20. l’. Sir
Iohn Crosby
Alderman, 100. l’. &c. But
in the yeere 1471. the Kentish Mari
ners,
Gate at the Bridge foot bur
ned.
under the conduct of Bastard
Fauconbridge
, burned the said Gate,
and thirteene houses on the Bridge,
besides the Beere houses at Saint Ka
therines
, and many other in the Sub
urbs.
The next is Buttolphs gate so called of
the Parish Church of S. Buttolph neere
adjoyning. This Gate was sometime
given,
K. William the Con
querour
his gift of the Gate.
or confirmed by William Con
querour
, to the Monks of Westminster,
in these words: VVill. Rex Angliæ,
&c. VVilliam King of England, sendeth
greating to the Sheriffes, and all his Mini
sters, as also to all his loving subjects, French
and English, of London. Know yee, that
I have granted to God and Saint Peter of
VVestminster
, and to the Abbot Vitalis,
the gift which Almundus, of the Port of
Saint Buttolph
, gave them, when he was
there made Monke: that is to say, his Lords
Court, with the houses, and one Wharfe,
which is at the head of London Bridge, and
all other his lands which hee had in the
same Citie, in such sort, as King Ed
ward
more beneficially, and amply
granted the same: And I will and com
mand, that they shall enjoy the same well,
and quietly, and honourably, with sake and
soke, &c.
The next is Belinsgate, used as an e
speciall Port, or Harbour for small
Ships and Boats comming thereto, and
is now most frequented, the Queene
Hith
being almost forsaken. How this
Gate tooke that name, or of what An
tiquity the same is, I must leave uncer
taine, as not having read any ancient Re
cord thereof, more than that Geffrey
Monmouth
writeth, that Belin, a King of
the Britans, about 400. yeeres before
Christs Nativity, builded this Gate,
and named it Belinsgate, after his owne
Name: And that when he was dead,
his body being burned, the Ashes in a
Vessell of Brasse,
Belins Vrne of Brasse.
were set upon a high
pinacle of stone over the same Gate.
But sar, and other Roman writers af
firme of Cities, Walls and Gates, as
ye have before heard, and therefore it
seemeth to mee, not to be so ancient;
but rather to have taken that name, of
some later owner of the place, haply
named Beling, or Biling, as Somars key,
Smarts key, Frosh wharfe, and others
there-by, tooke their names of their
owners: Of this Gate more shall bee
said, when we come to speake of Belins
gate
Ward
.
Then have you a Water-gate on the
West side of Wool-wharfe, or Customers
key
, which is commonly called the
Watergate, at the South end of Water
lane
.
One other Water-gate,
Watergate by the To
wer
.
there is by
the Bulwarke of the Tower, and this is
the last and farthest Water gate East
ward on the River of Thames, so farre
as the Citie of LONDON extendeth
E2
within

Towers and Castles.
within the Wals: both which last na
med Water-gates be within the Tower
Ward
.
Besides these common Water-gates,
Wharfes and keyes.

were divers private Wharfes and Keies,
all along from the East to the West of
this Citie, on the banke of the River of
Thames
; where Merchants (of all Nati
ons) had landing places, Ware-hou
ses, Cellars, and stowage of their goods
and Merchandises, as partly shall bee
touched in the Wards adjoyning to the
said River. Now for the ordering and
keeping of these Gates of this Citie in
the night time, it was appointed in the
yeere of Christ 1258. by Henry the 3.
the 42. of his reigne, that the Ports of
England should be strongly kept,
Mat. Paris. Gates of London to be kept & watcht.
and
that the Gates of London should bee
new repaired, and diligently kept in the
night, for feare of French deceits, where
of one writeth these verses:
Per noctem portæ clauduntur Londoniarum,
Mœnia, ne fortè fraus frangat Francigenarū.

Notes

  1. Stow has made a mistake here. The correct date of this donation was 1337 (Stow 31). (JZ)

References

Cite this page

MLA citation

Stow, John, Anthony Munday, Anthony Munday, and Humphrey Dyson. Survey of London (1633): Gates. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 6.6, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 30 Jun. 2021, mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/stow_1633_gates.htm. Draft.

Chicago citation

Stow, John, Anthony Munday, Anthony Munday, and Humphrey Dyson. Survey of London (1633): Gates. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 6.6. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed June 30, 2021. mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/stow_1633_gates.htm. Draft.

APA citation

Stow, J., Munday, A., Munday, A., & Dyson, H. 2021. Survey of London (1633): Gates. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London (Edition 6.6). Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/editions/6.6/stow_1633_gates.htm. Draft.

RIS file (for RefMan, RefWorks, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

TY  - ELEC
A1  - Stow, John
A1  - Munday, Anthony
A1  - Munday, Anthony
A1  - Dyson, Humphrey
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London (1633): Gates
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
ET  - 6.6
PY  - 2021
DA  - 2021/06/30
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/stow_1633_gates.htm
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/xml/standalone/stow_1633_gates.xml
TY  - UNP
ER  - 

TEI citation

<bibl type="mla"><author><name ref="#STOW6"><surname>Stow</surname>, <forename>John</forename></name></author>, <author><name ref="#MUND1"><forename>Anthony</forename> <surname>Munday</surname></name></author>, <author><name ref="#MUND1"><forename>Anthony</forename> <surname>Munday</surname></name></author>, and <author><name ref="#DYSO1"><forename>Humphrey</forename> <surname>Dyson</surname></name></author>. <title level="a">Survey of London (1633): Gates</title>. <title level="m">The Map of Early Modern London</title>, Edition <edition>6.6</edition>, edited by <editor><name ref="#JENS1"><forename>Janelle</forename> <surname>Jenstad</surname></name></editor>, <publisher>U of Victoria</publisher>, <date when="2021-06-30">30 Jun. 2021</date>, <ref target="https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/stow_1633_gates.htm">mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/6.6/stow_1633_gates.htm</ref>. Draft.</bibl>

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