Suruay of London, conteyning the o
riginall, antiquitie, increase, moderne estate,
and description of that Cittie.
AS Rome the chiefe Citie of the world to
glorifie it selfe, drew her originall from the
Gods, Goddesses, and demy Gods, by the
Troian progeny. So this famous Citie
of London for greater glorie, and in emu
lation of Rome, deriueth it selfe from the
very same originall. For (as Ieffery of
, the Welche Historian repor
teth Brute descended from the demy god Eneas, the sonne of Ve
, daughter of Iupiter, aboute the yeare of the world 2855. the
yeare before Christes natiuitie, 1108. builded a Citie neare vn
to a riuer now called Thames, and named it Troynouant. or Tre
the writen
King Lud afterwarde not onely repayred this Cittie, but also
added fayre buildings, Towres, and wals, and called it after his
owne name Caire-Lud
the Citie of
, but
Luds town
is a Saxon
or Luds towne, and the strong gate which
he builded in the west part of the Cittie, hée likewise for his owne
honor named it Ludgate.
This Lud had issue two sons, Androgeus, and Themantius,
who being not of age to gouerne at the death of their Father: their
Unckle Cassibilan, tooke vpon him the crowne, about the eight
yeare of whoſe raigne
, Iulius Cesar ariued in this land with a
greate power of Romains to conquer it, the manner of which con
quest I will summarily set down out of his own Commentaries,
which are of farre better credit, then the relations of Geffery
Cesars Co
liber. 5.
The chiefe gouernement of the Britons, and ordering of the
warres, was then by common aduice committed to Cassibilan,
whose Signiorie was seperated from the Cities towardes the sea
coast, by the riuer called Thames, about fourescore miles from
the sea, this Cassibilan in times past, had made continuall warre
vpon the Cities adioyning, but the Britons being moued with

Antiquity of London.
the Romaines inuasion, had resolued in that necessitie to make him
their Soueraigne and Generall of the warres (which continued
hot betwéene the Romains and them) but in the meane while, the
Citizens of
which was then the strongest Cittie well neare of
al those countries (and out of which Citie a young gentleman cal
led Mandubrace, vpon confidence of Cesars helpe, came vnto him
into the maine land of Gallia now called France, and thereby es
caped death, which he should haue suffered at Cassibilans hande,)
sent their Ambassadors to Cesar, promising to yeeld vnto him, and
to doe what he should commande them, instantly desiring him, to
protect Mandubrace from the furious tirannie of Cassibilan, and
to send him into their Cittie, with authority to take the gouern
ment thereof vpon him. Cesar accepted the offer, and appointed
them to geue vnto him 40. Hostages, and withall to finde him
graine for his army, and so sent he Mandubrace
and the
yeeld to
Cesar, and
he defended
vnto them.
When others saw that Cesar had not onelie defended the Tri
against Cassibilan, but had also saued them harmeles
from the pillage of his own souldiers, then did the Conimagues, Se
gontians, Ancalits, Bibrokes
, and Cassians, likewise submit
themselues vnto him, and by them he learned that not farre from
thence was Cassibilans towne, fortified with woods, and marish
ground, into the which hee had gathered a greate number both of
towne west
from Lon
for Ce
saith 80.
miles from
the sea,
Cities of the
were com
woods for
and cattell.
For the Brittons call that a town (saith Cesar) when they haue
fortified a combarsom wood with a ditch and rampire, and the
ther they resorte to abide the approach of their ennemies, to this
place therefore marched Cesar, with his Legions, hee founde it ex
cellentlie fortified both of nature, and by mans aduice: neuerthe
lesse he resolued to assault it in two seuerall places at once, where
upon the Brittons being not able to endure the force of the Ro
, fled out at an other parte, and left the towne vnto him: a
greate number of cattell he found there, and many of the Britons
he slew, and other he tooke in the chase.
Whilst these thinges were a doing in these quarters, Cassibi
sent messengers into Kent, which lieth vpon the sea, in which
there raigned then 4. particular kinges, named Cingetorix, Car
, Taximagul
, and Segonax, whome he commanded to raise all

Antiquitie of London.
their forces, and suddenly to set vppon, and assault the Romaines,
in their trenches, by the sea side: the which when the Romaines
perceiued, they salied out vpon them, slew a greate sorte of them,
and taking Cingetorix their noble Captaine prisoner, retired
themselues to their Campe in good safety.
When Cassibilan harde of this, and had formerly taken many
other losses, and found his countrie sore wasted, and himselfe left
almost alone by the defection of the other Cities, he sent Ambassa
dors by Connius of Arras, to Cesar, to entreate with him, concer
ning his own submission, the which Cesar did accept, and taking
Hostages, assessed the Realme of Britaine,
sessed to pay
a yerely tri
bute to the
to a yearely tribute,
to be payed to the people of Rome, giuing straight charge to Cas
, that he should not séeke any reuenge vpon Mandubrace
or the Trinobantes, and so withdrew his armie to the sea againe.
Thus farre out of Cesars Commentaries concerning this Hi
storie, which happened in the yeare before Christes natiuitie 54.
in all which processe there is for this purpose to bee noted, that
Cesar nameth the Citie of Trinobantes, which hath a resem
blance with Troy noua or Trinobantum, which hath no greater
difference in the Orthographie, then changing b. into v. and yet
maketh an error which I will not argue, onely this I will note
that diuers learned men do not thinke ciuitas Trinobantum to
be well and truely translated, the Citie of the Trinobantes: but
it should rather be the state, comonalty, or Signiory, of the Trino
:1 for that Cesar in his Comentaries vseth the worde ciui
, onely for a people liuing vnder one, and the selfe same Prince
and law but certaine it is that the Cities of the Britaines,
Cities of the
Britans not
with houses
nor walled.
with stone
in those daies neither artificially builded with houses, nor strongly
walled with stone, but were onely thicke and combarsom woodes
plashed within and trenched aboute: and the like in effect do other
the Romaine and Greeke autors directly affirme, as Strabo
Pomponius Mela
, and Dion a Senator of Rome, which flourish
ed in the seuerall raignes of the Romaine Emperours, Tiberius
, Domitian, and Seuerus, to wit that before the ariuall
of the Romains, the Britons had no townes but called that a town
which had a thicke intangled wood, defended as I saide with a
ditch and banke, the like whereof the Irishmen our next neighbors

Antiquity of London.
doe at this day call Paces, but after that these hether partes of
Britaine were reduced into the forme of a Prouince by the Ro
, who sowed the seedes of ciuilitie ouer all Europe, this
Citie whatsoeuer it was before, began to bee renowned, and of
For Tacitus, who first of all Autors nameth it Londinum,
sayth that in the 62. after Christ it was albeit, no Colonie of the
Romaines, yet most famous
most famus
for Mar
chantes and
for the greate multitude of Mar
chantes, prouision, and intercourse. At which time in that notable
reuolte of the BThis text has been supplied. Reason: Omitted from the original text due to a printing or typesetting error. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on evidence internal to this text (context, etc.). (SM)ritons from Nero, in which 70000. Romaines &
their leager fellowes were slaine, this Citie with Verulam nere
S. Albons, and Maldon, then all famous: were ransacked and
For Suetonius Paulinus then Lieftennant for the Romaines
in this Isle, abandoned it: as not then forfeyted, and left it to the
The Britons
had no hou
ses, but cot
Shortly after, Iulius Agricola, the Romaine Liefetennant, in
the time of Domitian, was the first that by adhorting the Bri
, publikely, and helping them priuately, wun them to builde
houses for themselues, temples for the Gods, and courtes for Iu
stice, to bring vp the noblemens children in good letters and hu
manity, and to apparrell themselues Romaine like, whereas be
fore (for the most parte) they went naked, painting their bodies &c.
as all the Romaine writers haue obserued.
The Britons
went naked
their bodi
es painted.
True it is I confesse, that afterwarde many Cities and Towns
in Britaine vnder the gouernement of the Romaines, werewal
led with stone, & baked bricks, or tyles, as Richborrow, or Rypta
, in the Isle of Thanet, til the channell altered his course, be
sides Sandwitch, in Kent, Verulamium
in Kent
Of the wal,
about Lon
besides S. Albones,
in Hartfordshire, Cilcester, in Hampshire, Roxcester in Shrop
shire, Kenchester
in Herefordshire, thrée miles from Hereford
towne, Ribchester, 7. miles aboue Preston, on the water of Rib
le, Aldeburge
a mile from Borrowbridge, or Wathelingstreet,
on Vre Riuer and others, & no doubt but this our Citie of Lon
, was also walled with stone, in the time of the Romaine go
uernement here, but yet very lately, for it seemeth not to haue
beene walled in the yeare of our Lorde 296. because in that yeare

Antiquitie of London.
when Alectus the TyranThis text has been supplied. Reason: Omitted from the original text due to a printing or typesetting error. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on guesswork. (SM)t was slaine in the field, the Frankes ea
sily entred London, and had sacked the same, had not God of his
greate fauour, at the very instant brought along the riuer of Tha
, certaine bandes of Romaine Souldiers, who slew those
Frankes in euerie streete of the Cittie.
In few yeares after, as Simeon of Durham, an ancient wri
ter reporteth, Hellen the mother of Constantine the greate, was
the first that inwalled it aboute the yeare of Christ 306. howsoe
uer those wals of stone might be builded by Helen, yet the BriThis text has been supplied. Reason: Omitted from the original text due to a printing or typesetting error. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on evidence internal to this text (context, etc.). (SM)tōs,
(I know) had no skil of building with stone, as it may appeare by
that, which followeth about the yere after ChriThis text has been supplied. Reason: Omitted from the original text due to a printing or typesetting error. Evidence: The text has been supplied based on evidence internal to this text (context, etc.). (KL)st, 399, when Ar
& Honorius the sonnes of Theodosius Magnus, gouerned
the Empire, the one in the East, the other in the
The Ro
maines left
to gouerne
West, for Ho
hauing receiued Britaine, the Citie of Rome was inuaded
and destroyed, by the Gathes after which time the Romaines left
to rule in Britaine, as being, imployed in defence of their Ter
ritories nerer home, whereupon the Britains not able to defende
themselues against the inuasions of their enemies, were many
yeres together vnder the oppression of two most cruell nations,
the Scots and Pictes,
The Scots
and Picts
inuade this
and at the length were forced to send their
Ambassadors with letters and lamentable supplications, to come,
requiring aide and succour from thence, vpon promise of their con
tinuall fealtie, so that the Romaines woulde rescue them out of
the handes of their ennemies. Hereupon the Romaines sent vnto
them a Legion of armed Souldiers, which comming into this I
land, and incountering with the ennemies, ouerthrew a great
number of them, and draue the rest out of the frontiers of the
countrie, and so setting the Britaines at liberty, counselled them
to make a wall, extending all along betwéene the twoo seas, which
might be of force to kéepe out their euill neighbours, and then re
turned home with greate triumph: But the Britaines
vnskilfull of
with stone
Masons builded that wall not of stone as they were aduised, but
made it of turfe, and that so slender, that it serued litle or nothing
at al for their defence: and the ennemie perceiuing that the Ro
maine Legiō
was returned home, forthwith arriued, out of their
boates, inuaded the borders, ouercame the countrie, and as it
were, bare down al that was before them.


Cite this page

MLA citation

Stow, John, and William fitz-Stephen. Survey of London (1598): Antiquity of London. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 7.0, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 05 May 2022, mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/stow_1598_antiquity.htm.

Chicago citation

Stow, John, and William fitz-Stephen. Survey of London (1598): Antiquity of London. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 7.0. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed May 05, 2022. mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/stow_1598_antiquity.htm.

APA citation

Stow, J., & fitz-Stephen, W. 2022. Survey of London (1598): Antiquity of London. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London (Edition 7.0). Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/editions/7.0/stow_1598_antiquity.htm.

RIS file (for RefMan, RefWorks, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

A1  - Stow, John
A1  - fitz-Stephen, William
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London (1598): Antiquity of London
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
ET  - 7.0
PY  - 2022
DA  - 2022/05/05
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/stow_1598_antiquity.htm
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/xml/standalone/stow_1598_antiquity.xml
ER  - 

TEI citation

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