Londini Speculum: or, London’s Mirror

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Londini Speculum: or,
Londons Mirror,
Expreſt in ſundry Triumphs,
Pageants and Showes, at the Initiation of the right
Honorable Richard Fenn, into the Mairolty of the Fa
mous and farre renowned City London

All the Charge and Expence of theſe laborious projects both
by Water and Land, being the ſole undertaking of the Right
Worſhipful Company of the Habberdaſhers
Horizontal Rule
Crest of the Haberdashers’ Company
Imprinted at London by I. Okes dwelling in little St.
. 1637.

Printer’s Ornament
To the Right Honour
able Richard Fenn, Lord
Maior of this Renowned
Metropolis LONDON.
Right Honourable:
EXcuſe (I intreate) this my
boldneſſe, which proceedeth
rather from Cuſtome in others,
then Curioſity in my Selfe, in
preſuming to prompt your Me
mory in ſome things tending to
the greatnes of your high place
and Calling; You are now entred into one of the
moſt famous Mairolties of the Chriſtian
World. You are alſo cald Fathers, Patrons of
the Afflicted, and Procurators of the Publicke
. And whatſoever hath reference to the true
conſideration of Iuſtice and Mercy, may be Ana
conferd upon pyous and iuſt Magiſtrates.
And for the Antiquity of your yearely Go
, I read the Athenians elected

The Epiſtle Dedicatory.
theirs Annually, and for no longer continuance:
And ſo of the Carthagians, the Thebans, &c. And
the Roman Senate held, that continued Magi
was in ſome reſpects unprofitable to the
Weale-publicke, againſt which there was an Act
in the Lawes of the twelve Tables. And it is
thus concluded by the Learned, that the Domi
nion of the greateſt Magiſtrates which are Kings
and Princes, ought to be perpetuall; but of the
leſſe which be Prators, Cenſors, and the like, only
Ambulatory and Annuall. I conclude with that
ſaying of a wiſe man, Prime Officers ought to
Rule by Good Lawes, and commendable Ex
ample, Iudge by Providence, Wiſdome and Iu
and Defend by Prowes, Care, and Vigi
Theſe things I can but Dictate, of which
your Lordſhip knoweth beſt how to Diſpoſe: ever
(as now) remayning your Honors
Humble ſervant,
Thomas Heywood.

Printer’s Ornament

Londini Speculum,
Londons Mirrour.
Horizontal Rule
ALL Triumphes have their
Titles, and ſo this, according to
the nature thereof, beareth a
name: It is called Londini
κάτoπτρoν, that is, Speculum, more
plainly, Londons Mirrour, neither altogether
unproperly ſo termed, ſince ſhe in her ſelfe may
not onely perſpicuouſly behold her owne ver
tues, but all forraigne Cities by her, how to
correct their vices.
Her Antiquity ſhe deriveth from Brute, line
ally diſcended from Æneas, the ſonne of Anchi
and Venus, and by him erected, about the
yeare of the world two thouſand eight hundred
fifty five: before the Nativity of our bleſſed Sa
viour, one thouſand one hundred and eight:
firſt cald by him Trinovantum, or Troy-novant,

Londons Mirrour.
New Troy, to continue the remembrance of the
old, and after, in the proceſſe of time Caier Lud,
that is, Luds Towne, of King Lud, who not onely
greatly repaired the City, but increaſed it with
goodly and gorgeous buildings; in the Weſt
part whereof, he built a ſtrong gate, which hee
called after his owne name Lud gate, and ſo
from Luds Towne, by contraction of the word
and dialect uſed in thoſe times, it came ſince to
be called London.
I will not inſiſt to ſpeake of the name of
Maior, which implyeth as much as the greater,
or more prime perſon; ſuch were the Prætors,
or Prœfecti in Rome, neither were the Dicta
any more, till Julius Cæſar aiming at the
Imperiall Purple, was not content with that
annuall honour, which was to paſſe ſucceſsively
from one to another, but he cauſed himſelfe to
be Elected Perpetuus Dictator, which was in ef
fect no leſſe than Emperor.
And for the name of Elder-man, or Alder-man,
it is ſo ancient, that learned Maſter Cambden in
in his Britan. remembreth unto us, that in the
daies of Royal King Edgar, a noble Earle, and of
the Royall blood, whoſe name was Alwin, was
in ſuch favour with the King that he was ſtiled

Londons Mirrour.
Healf Kunning, or halfe King, and had the ſtile
of Alderman of all England: This man was the
firſt founder of a famous Monaſtery in the Iſle
of Ely, where his body lies interred, upon
whoſe Tombe was an inſcription in Latin,
which I have, verbatim, thus turned into Engliſh,
Here reſteth
Alwin, couzen to King Edgar, Alder
man of all
England, and of this Holy Abbey the mi
raculous founder.
And ſo much (being tide to a
briefe diſcourſe) may ſerve for the Antiquity
of London, and the Titles for Maior or Alder
I come now to the Speculum, or Mirrour. Plu
tels us, That a glaſſe in which a man or woman
behold their faces, is of no eſtimation or value (though
the frame thereof be never ſo richly deckt with gold &
gemmes, unleſſe it repreſent unto us the true figure and
obiect. Moreover, that ſuch are fooliſh and flattering
glaſses, which make a ſad face to looke pleaſant, or a
merry countenance melancholy: but a perfect and a
true Chriſtall, without any falſity or flattery, rendreth
every obiect its true forme, and proper figure, diſtingui
ſhing a ſmile from a wrincle; and ſuch are the meanes
many times to bridle our refractory affections: for who
being in a violent rage, would be pleaſed that his ſer
vant ſhould bring him a glaſſe wherein hee might be

Londons Mirrour.
hold the torvity and ſtrange alteration of his counte
Minerva playing upon a Pipe, was mockt by
a Satyre in theſe words.

Non te decet forma iſtæc, pone fiſtulas
Et Arma capeſse componens recte genus.
That viſage miſ-becomes, thy Pipe
Caſt from thee, Warlike dame,
Take unto thee thy wonted Armes,
And keepe thy Cheekes in frame.
But though ſhe deſpiſed his Councell for the pre
ſent, when after, playing upon the ſame Pipe, in which
ſhe ſo much delighted, ſhee beheld in a river ſuch a
change in her face, ſhee caſt it from her, and broke it a
ſunder, as knowing that the ſweetnes of her muſick could
not countervaile or recompence that deformity which
it put upon her countenance, and therefore I have purpo
ſed ſo true and exact a Mirrour, that in it may be diſ
covered as well that which beautifies the governour, as
deformes the government.
One thing more is neceſsitouſly to be added,
and then I fall upon the ſhowes in preſent agi
tation: namely, that the fellowſhip of the Mer
chant Adventurers of England
were firſt truſted
with the ſole venting of the manufacture of
Cloth out of this kingdome, & have for above

Londons Mirrour.
this 4 hundred years traded in a priviledged, &
wel governed courſe, in Germany, the Low Coun
tries, &c
. and have beene the chiefe meanes to
raiſe the manufacture of all wollen commodi
ties to that height in which it now exiſteth,
which is the moſt famous ſtaple of the Land,
and whereby the poore in all Countries are
plentifully maintained: and of this Company
his Lordſhip is free: as alſo of the Levant, or
Turkey, and of the Eaſt India Company, whoſe
trading hath beene, and is in theſe forraine ad
ventures: alſo who ſpent many yeares and a
great part of his youth abroad in other Coun
Now the firſt ſhow by water is preſented by
St. Katherine, of whom I will gibe you this ſhort
She was the daughter of King Coſtus,
and had the generall title of Queene of Famogoſta,
becauſe crowned in that City, being lineally diſcended
from the Roman Emperors, who as ſhe lived a Vir
gin ſo ſhe dyed a Martyr, under the Tyrant Maxen
, whoſe Empreſſe with divers other eminent per
ſons ſhe had before converted to the Faith: ſhe rideth
on a Scallop, which is part of his Lordſhips Coate of
Armes, drawne in a Sea-Chariot, by two Sea-horſes
with divers other adornments to beautifie the peece; the

Londons Mirrour.
Art of which, the eye may better diſcover, than my pen
deſcribe, and why ſhe being a Princeſſe, and Patroneſſe
of this Company of the Haberdaſhers, who onely ruled
on the Land, ſhould at this time appeare upon the water,
and without any iuſt taxation, to make that cleare, ſhee
thus delivereth her ſelfe.
St. Katherines ſpeech by Water.
GReat Prætor, and grave Senators, ſhe craves
A free admittance on theſe curied waves,
Who doth from long antiquity profeſſe
Herſelfe to be your gracious Patroneſſe:
Oft have I on a paſſant Lyon ſate,
And through your populous ſtreets beene borne in ſtate:
Oft have I grac’t your Triumphes on the ſhore,
But on the Waters was not ſeene before.
Will you the reaſon know why it doth fall,
That I thus change my Element? you ſhall:
When Triton with his pearly trumpets blew
A ſtreperous blaſt, to ſummon all the crew
Of Marine gods and goddeſſes to appeare,
(As the annuall cuſtome is) and meet you here:
As they were then in councell to debate,
What honour they might adde unto the ſtate
Of this Inauguration; there appear’d
God Mercury, who would from Iove be heard:
His Caducaus ſilence might command;
Whilſt all attentive were to underſtand
The tenor of his meſſage: who thus ſpake.
The Sire of gods, with what you undertake

Londons Mirrour.
Is highly pleas’d, and greatly doth commend
That faire deſigne and purpoſe you intend;
But he beheld a Machine from an high,
Which at firſt ſight daz’d his immortall eye;
A royall Arke, whoſe bright and glorious beams
Rivall the Sunnes, ready to proove your ſtreames:
A veſſell of ſuch beauty, burthen, ſtate,
That all the high Powers were amaz’d thereat;
So beautified, ſo munified, ſo clad,
As might an eight to the ſeaven wonders adde:
VVhich muſt be now your charge; ’twas Ioves owne mo-(tion,
That all of you attend her to the Ocean.
This not withſtanding, ſuch was their great care,
(To ſhew that o’re you they indulgent are)
That Neptune from his Chariot bad me chuſe
Two of his beſt Sea-horſes, to excuſe
His inforc’t abſence: Thames (whoſe breaſt doth ſwell
Still with that glorious burthen) bad me tell,
That Ioves command ſhall be no ſooner done,
But every Tide he’le on your errands runne
From hence to the Lands end, and thence againe
Backe, to conveigh your trafficke from the Maine:
My meſſage thus delivered, now proceed
To take your oath, there is no further need
Of my aſſiſtance; who on Land will meete you,
And with the ſtate of greater Triumphes greete you.
Theſe few following Lines may, (and not im
pertinently) be added unto Jupiters meſſage,
delivered by Mercury, which though too long
for the Bardge, may perhaps not ſhew lame in
the booke, as being leſſe troubleſome to the
Reader than the Rower.

Londons Mirrour.
Dance in thy raine-bow colours Protæus, change
Thy ſelfe to thouſand figures, ’tis not ſtrange
VVith thee, thou old Sea-prophet, throng the ſeas
With Phorcus Daughters, the Nereides,
And all the blew-hair’d Nymphes, in number more,
Than Barkes that float, or Pibbles on the ſhore:
Take Æolus along to fill her ſailes
With proſperous windes, and keepe within his gailes
Tempeſtuous guſts: which was no ſooner ſaid,
But done: for all the Marine gods obey’d.
The ſecond ſhow, but the firſt by Land, is
preſented by the great Philoſopher Pythagoras,
, the ſonne of Menarchus; which being
outwardly Sphericall and Orbicular, yet being
opened it quadrates it ſelfe iuſt into ſo many
Angles as there be Scepters, over which his Sa
cred Maieſty beareth title: namely, England,
Scotland, France,
and Ireland, concerning which
number of foure, I thus Read: Pythagoras and
his Schollers, who taught in his ſchooles, that
Ten was the nature and ſoule of all number;
one Reaſon which he gave (to omit the reſt)
was, becauſe all nations, as well civill as barba
rous, can tell no farther than to the Denary,
which is Ten, and then returne in their account
unto the Monady, that is one: For example,
from Tenne wee proceed to Eleven and Twelve,

Londons Mirrour.
which is no more than Ten and One, Ten and
Two, and ſo of the reſt, till the number riſe to
an infinite.
Againe hee affirmeth, that the ſtrength and
vertue of all number conſiſteth in the quater
; for beginning with one, two, three and foure,
put them together and they make ten; he ſaith
further, that the nature of number conſiſteth
in ten, and the faculty of number is comprized
in foure: in which reſpect the Pythagoreans ex
preſſe their holy oath in quaternion, which
they cal’d τετρακτύν as may appear in theſe words.
Per tibi noſtræ animæ præbentem tetrada Iuro,
Naturæ fontemque & firmamenta perennis.
For they held the ſoule of man to ſubſiſt in
that number, proportionating it into theſe foure
Faculties, Mens, Scientia, Opinio, Senſus, the
Mind, Knowledge, Opinion, and Sence, and therefore
according to that number Pythagoras frames his
Speech, alluding to thoſe foure Kingdomes over
which his Maieſty beareth title.
The Speech of the ſecond Show, delivered in
Paules Church-yard.
SAcred’s the number foure, Philoſophers ſay,
And beares an happy Omen; as this day

Londons Mirrour.
It may appeare: foure Elements conſpire,
Namely, the Water, Earth, the Aire, and Fire,
To make up man: the colours in him bred
Are alſo foure, White, Pallid, Blacke, and red.
Of foure Complexions he exiſteth ſoly,
Flegmaticke, Sanguine, Choler, Melancholy.
His meate foure ſeverall digeſtions gaines,
In Stomacke, Liver, Members, and the Veines.
Foure qualities cald primæ within lie,
Which are thus titled, Hot, Cold, Moiſt, and Drie.
He acts his whole life on this earthy ſtage,
In Child-hood, Youth, Man-hood, Decripit age.
The very day that doth afford him light,
Is Morning the Meridian, Evening, Night.
Foure ſeaſons ſtill ſucceſsively appeare,
Which put together make a compleat yeare.
The earth, with all the Kingdomes therein guided,
Is into foure diſtinguiſh’d parts devided.
The foure Windes from the Worlds foure quarter blow,
Eurus, Favonius, Auſter, Aquilo.
All Morall vertues we in foure include,
As Prudence, Iuſtice, Temperance Fortitude.
Court, City, Campe, and Countrey, the foure CCCs;
Which repreſent to us the Foure degrees,
Requir’d in every faire and flouriſhing Land,
Subſtract but one a Kingdome cannot stand.
Foure Colonels are in this City knowne,
Of which you, honoured Sir, have long beene one:
And thoſe foure Crownes, (for ſo the high Powers pleaſe)
Embleme the Kings foure Scepters, and foure Seas.
The **Quinta per
fift Imperiall Arch above,
That glorious Crowne, at which his Highneſſe aimes.

Londons Mirrour.
Thus is our round Globe ſquard, figuring his power,
And yours beneath Him, in the number foure.
The third Show.
THe third Pageant or Show meerly conſiſteth of An
ticke geſticulations, dances, and other Mimicke po
ſtures, deviſed onely for the vulgar, who are better de
lighted with that which pleaſeth the eye, than conten
teth the eare, in which we imitate Cuſtome, which alwaies
carrieth with it excuſe: neither are they altogether to be
vilefied by the moſt ſupercilous, and cenſorioius, eſpe
cially in ſuch a confluence, where all Degrees, Ages, and
Sexes are aſſembled, every of them looking to bee pre
ſented with ſome fancy or other, according to their ex
pectations and humours: Since grave and wiſe men have
beene of opinion, that it is convenient, nay neceſſitous, up
on the like occaſions, to mixe ſeria iocis; for what better
can ſet off matter, than when it is interlaced with mirth?
From that I proceede to the fourth.
The fourth Show.
IT beareth the Title of an Imperiall Fort: nor is it com
pulſive, that here I ſhould argue what a Fort is, a
Skonce, or a Cittadall, nor what a Counterskarfe, or halfe
Moone, &c. is; nor what the oppoſures or defences are:
my purpoſe is onely to expreſſe my ſelfe thus farre, that
this Fort which is ſtil’d Imperiall, defenc’d with men
and officers, ſuiting their functions and places proper to
ſuch a muniment; doth in the morall include his Maje
ſties royall chamber, which is the City of London, for to
that onely purpoſe was the project intended.
The Speaker is Bellona, whom ſome held to be the
Daughter, ſome the Siſter, others the Nurſe of Mars the

Londons Mirrour.
god of Warre; neither in any of theſe is any
impropiety, or ought that is diſſonant from authority,
becauſe Enyo, which is Bellona, implyeth that which put
teth ſpirit and courage into an army, &c. Antiquity cal
led her Duellana, that is, the goddeſſe of warre; to whom
their Prieſts ſacrificed their owne blood, and before
whoſe Temple the Facialis ſet a ſpeare againſt ſome
prime pillar thereof, when any publicke warre was to be
denounced: Shee was moſt honoured of the Thracians,
the Scithians, and thoſe wild and barbarous nations, upon
whoſe Altars they uſed to ſacrifice a Vulture, which is a
ravenous bird, uſed to prey upon dead carcaſſes, and aſ
ſemble themſelves in great flocks after any fought bat
taile: but this Diſcourſe may to ſome appeare imperti
nent to the project in hand, and therefore I thus proceed
to her ſpeech.
Bellonaes Speech upon the Imperiall Fort.
THis Structure (honour’d Sir) doth title beare
Of an Imperiall Fort, apt for that ſpheare
In which you now moove, borrowing all her grace,
As well from your owne perſon, as your place;
For you have paſt through all degrees that tended
Vnto that height which you have now aſcended.
You have beene in this City (’tis knowne well)
A Souldier, Captaine, and a Colonell.
And now in times faire progreſſe, to crowne all,
Of this Metropolis chiefe Generall.
You, of this Embleme, which this day we bring,
To repreſent the Chamber of the King,
Are the prime governour: a Royall Fort,
And ſtrongly ſetted, as not built for ſport,
But for example and defence: a Tower
Supported by no leſſe than Soveraigne power:

Londons Mirrour.
The Theologicke vertues, the three Graces,
And Charites have here their ſeverall places.
Here Piety, true Zeale, ſtudy of Peace,
parve res
is the Mot
to of the
of the
right Wor
(By which ſmall mites to Magozines increaſe)
Have reſidence: now oppoſite there are
To theſe, and with them at continuall warre,
Pride, Arrogance, Sloath, Vanity, Preſtigion,
Prophaneſſe, the contempt of true Religion,
With thouſands more, who aſsiduatly waite
This your Imperiall Fort to inſidiate.
You may obſerve i’th muſicke of your Bels
Like ſound in Triumphes, and for funerall knels;
Marriage and death to them appeare all one,
Masking nor mourning cannot change their tone:
With our Fort ’tis not ſo, whoſe faire pretence, is
To comply with the nature of offence,
Errors: ſhe knowes in low termes how to chide
Great faults, with greater noiſe are terrifi’d:
But ſhe can load her Cannons, and ſpeake loud
To encounter with the arrogant and proud:
Whats further in your Prætorſhip aſsign’d,
You, in your Londons Mirrour there may find.
The fifth ſhow, cald Londons Mirrour.
THis beareth the title of the whole Triumphe; of
Glaſſes pertinent to this our purpoſe, there bee
ſeverall forts, as Opticke, Perſpective, Proſpective, Multi
plying, &c.
The preſenter is Viſus, or Sight; for what the
minde is to the ſoule, the ſame is the eye to the body, be
ing the moſt precious part thereof. Sight is the moſt
ſoveraigne ſence, the firſt of five, which directeth man to
the ſtuddy & ſearch of knowledge & wiſedome; the eyes
are placed in the head as in a Citadel, to be watch-towers

Londons Mirrour.
and Centinels for the ſafety, and guiders and conducters
for the ſollace of the body.
We reade that one Marcus Varro was ſir-named Stra
, for the excellency and quickneſſe of his ſight, who
from Libæum, a Province in Scicilia, could diſtin
guiſh and give an exact account of all ſuch ſhips as came
out of the haven of Carthage, which two places ſome
hold to be more than an hundred Italian leagues diſtant:
indeed no man can better eſtimate the vertue and value
of the ſight, than he that is made blinde and wants it, nei
ther could I deviſe a more apt Speaker to preſent this
Mirrour, than the ſence of the ſight, without which, the
pureſt Chriſtall is of no uſe at all.
The Pageant it ſelfe is decored with glaſſes of all ſorts:
the perſons upon or about it are beautifull Children, e
very one of them expreſſing their natures and conditions
in the impreſaes of their ſhields, eight of the prime of
which ſuiting with the quality of the Optick ſence, beare
theſe ſeverall Inſcriptions: Aſpice, Deſpice, Conſpice, Pro
, Perſpice, Inſpice, Circumſpice Reſpice:
Oψσɩς, or Opſis the Speaker.
BEhold me Sight, of the five ſences prime,
(Now beſt complying with the place and time)
Preſenting Londons Mirrour, and this Glaſſe
Shewes not alone what ſhe is, or once was,
But that the ſpacious Vniverſe might ſee
In her, what their great Cities ought to be;
That every forraigne Magiſtrate from hence
Might learne how to diſpoſe his Opticke ſence.
Aſpice ſaith, Looke toward and upon
Deſartfull men whom this Age frowneth on.
And Deſpice caſt downe thy powerfull eye
On the poore wretch that doth beneath thee lye.

Londons Mirrour.
Then Conſpice take counſell firſt and pauſe
With meditation, ere though iudge a cauſe.
Proſpice bids looke a farre off, and view
(Before conclude) what dangers may inſue.
Perſpice wils, in ſifting doubts, then ſcan
The nature of the matter with the man.
Let every cauſe be ſearcht, and duely ſought,
Saith Inſpice, ere thou determinſt ought.
Circumſpice ſaith, looke about to immure
So great a charge, that all within be ſure.
Conſiderate Reſpice inioynes thee laſt,
To caſt thine eyes backe upon all things paſt.
For Londons ſelfe, if they ſhall firſt begin
To examine her without, and then within,
What Architectures, Palaces, what Bowers,
What Citadels, what turrets, and what towers?
Who in her age grew pregnant, brought a bed
Of a New Towne, and late delivered
Of ſuch a burthen, as in few yeares ſpace,
Can almoſt ſpeake all tongues, (to her more grace.)
Then her Cathedrals, Temples new reparing,
An act of true devotion, no man ſparing
His helping hand, and many, ’tis well knowne,
To further Gods houſe have forgot their owne.
Vnto her outward ſhape I doe not prize her,
But let them come within to anatomize her.
Her Prætor, ſcarlet Senate, Liveries,
The ordering of her brave ſocieties:
Divine Aſtræa here in equall ſcale
Doth ballance Iuſtice, Truth needes not looke pale,
Nor poverty deiected, th’Orphants cauſe,
And Widowes plea finde helpe; no ſubtile clauſe

Londons Mirrour.
Can make demurre in ſentence: a faire bearing,
And upright doome in every Court appearing:
Still to preſerve her ſo, be’t your indeavour,
And ſhe in you, you her ſhall live for ever.
I come now to the Linvoy, or laſt Speech, when his Lordſhip, after
his dayes long and tedious trouble, retireth himſelfe to his reſt at
night, in which Pythagoras the Speaker briefly runs over the paſſages
of the Pageants before expreſſed after this manner.
The Speech at Night.
WE to a Valediction are confin’d,
(Right Honoured) and intreat You beare in minde
What was this Day preſented: Your chiefe Saint
A Martyr once of the Church militant,
But now of the tryumphant, bids You ſpare
Your ſelfe this Night: for to a World of Care
You are ingag’d tomorrow, which muſt laſt
Till the whole progreſſe of Your Yeere be paſt.
The Spheare-like Globe quadrated, lets You know,
What Pro-Rex doth to the four Scepters owe.
Your Military honours (in your Dayes
Of leſſe commend) th’ Imperiall Fort diſplayes,
And Londons Mirrour, that all men may ſee
What Magiſtrates have beene, and ought to be.
Set is the Sunne long ſince, and now the Light
Quite fayling us, Thrice Honourd Sir, good Night.
For the Artiſts, and directors of theſe Pageants and ſhowes, John Chriſt
and Mathias, the two Sonnes of Gerard, their now deceaſed Father,
a knowne Maſter in all whoſe Sciences he profeſt. I can ſay no more but
thus, that proportioning their Workes according to the limits of the gates
through which they were to paſſe, being ty’de not to exceede one Inch ei
ther in height, or breadth: My Opinion is that few Workemen about the
Towne can paralell them, much leſſe exceede them. But if any ſhall either
out of Curioſity or malice taxe their ability, in this kind of Art, I referre
them to the Carving of his Majeſties Great Ship lately built at Woolwitch,
which Worke alone is able both to ſatisfie mutation, and qualifie Envie.

Cite this page

MLA citation

Heywood, Thomas. Londini Speculum: or, London’s Mirror. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 7.0, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 05 May 2022, mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/SPEC1.htm. Draft.

Chicago citation

Heywood, Thomas. Londini Speculum: or, London’s Mirror. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 7.0. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed May 05, 2022. mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/SPEC1.htm. Draft.

APA citation

Heywood, T. 2022. Londini Speculum: or, London’s Mirror. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London (Edition 7.0). Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/editions/7.0/SPEC1.htm. Draft.

RIS file (for RefMan, RefWorks, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

A1  - Heywood, Thomas
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Londini Speculum: or, London’s Mirror
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
ET  - 7.0
PY  - 2022
DA  - 2022/05/05
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/SPEC1.htm
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/xml/standalone/SPEC1.xml
ER  - 

TEI citation

<bibl type="mla"><author><name ref="#HEYW1"><surname>Heywood</surname>, <forename>Thomas</forename></name></author>. <title level="m">Londini Speculum: or, London’s Mirror</title>. <title level="m">The Map of Early Modern London</title>, Edition <edition>7.0</edition>, edited by <editor><name ref="#JENS1"><forename>Janelle</forename> <surname>Jenstad</surname></name></editor>, <publisher>U of Victoria</publisher>, <date when="2022-05-05">05 May 2022</date>, <ref target="https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/SPEC1.htm">mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/SPEC1.htm</ref>. Draft.</bibl>