Survey of London (1633): Schools and Houses of Learning

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Of Schooles and other Houses of Learning.
IN the reigne of King Ste
Famons1 schooles of Philo
sophy by priviledge in London.
and of Henry the
, (saith Fitzstephen)
there were in London 3.
principal Churches, which
had famous Schooles, ei
ther by priviledge and ancient dignitie,
or by fauour of some particular persons, as
of Doctors, which were accounted notable
and renowned, for knowledge in Philosophie.
And there were other inferior Schools also.
Vpon Festivall dayes,
Solemne meetings and dispu
ting of scholars Logically and de
the Masters made
solemne meetings in the Churches, where
their Schollers disputed Logically and de
monstratively: some bringing Enthimems,
other, perfect Syllogismes: some disputed
for shew; others to trace out the truth; and
cunning Sophisters were brave scholars,
when they flowed with words. Others used
fallacies: Rhetoricians spake aptly to per
swade, observing the precepts of Art, and
omitting nothing that might serve their pur
pose. The Boyes of divers Schooles did cap
or pot verses, and contended of the princi
ples of Grammar.
There were some,
Grammar schooles & scholers their exer
which (on the other
side) with Epigrams and Rimes, nipping
and quipping their fellowes, and the faults
of others, though suppressing their names,
moved thereby much laughter among their
Hitherto Fitzstephen, for schooles and
scholars, and for their exercise in the
Citie in his dayes,: sithence the which
time, as to me it seemeth, by increase of
Colledges of students in the Vniversi
ties of Oxford and Cambridge, the fre
quenting of schooles, and exercises of
scholars in the Citie, as had beene ac
customed, very much decreased.
The three principall Churches which
had these famous schooles by priviled
ges, must needs be the cathedral Church
of S. Paul
for one: seeing that by a gene
rall Councell,
Mat. Paris. Every Ca
thedrall Church had his schoole for poore scholars.
holden in the yeere 1176.
at Rome, in the Patriarchie of
it was decreed, that every Cathedrall
Church should have his schoolemaster,
to teach poore schollers, and others, as
had bin accustomed, and that no man
should take any reward for licence to
teach. The second, as most ancient, may
seeme to have beene the
Monasterie of
. Peters at Westminster
, whereof Ingul
, Abbot of Crowland, in the reigne
William the Conqueror
, writeth thus:
1 Jngulphus
, an humble servant of God,
borne of English parents, in the most beau
tifull Citie of London, for to attaine to
learning, was first put to Westm. & after
to study at Oxford, &c. And writing in
praise of
Queene Agitha, wife to Ed
ward the Confessor
: I have seene (saith
often, when being but a Boy, I came to
see my Father, dwelling in the Kings Court,
and often comming from Schoole, when I

Of Schooles and Houses of Learning.

met the Queene, she would oppose me tou
ching my learning and lesson. And falling
from Grammar to Logicke, wherein she had
some knowledge, she would subtilly conclude
an Argument with me. And by her hand
maiden give me three or foure peeces of mo
ney, and send mee unto the Palace, where I
should receive some victuals, and then bee
The third Schoole seemeth to have
beene in the Monastery of S. Saviour, at
Bermondsey in Southwarke
. For other
Priories, as of Saint Iohn by Smithfield,
Saint Bartholomew in Smithfield, Saint
Mary Overie in Southwarke
, and that of
the Holy Trinity by Ealdgate, were all
of later foundation, and the Friers Col
ledges, and Hospitals in this Citie, were
raised since them, in the reignes of Hen
the 3
. Edward the 1, 2, and 3. &c. All
which houses had their Schools, though
not so famous as these first named.
But touching Schooles more lately
advanced in this Citie, I read, that King
Henry the fifth
, having suppressed the
Priories Aliens,
Priories Aliens.
whereof some were a
bout London, namely, Our Lady of Roun
by Charing-Crosse: one other Ho
spitall in Oldborne: one other without
Creplegate; and the fourth without Al
: besides other that are now
worne out of memory, and whereof
there is no monument remaining, more
than Rouncivall, converted to a Brother
hood, which continued till the reigne
of Henry the eighth
, or Edward the 6.
This, I say, and other of their Schooles,
being broken up and ceased, King Henry
the 6
. in the 24. of his reigne
Henry the sixth ap
pointed Grammar Schooles.
by Pa
tent appointed, that there should be in
London Grammar-Schooles, besides S.
, at S. Martins le grand, S. Mary le
, in Cheap, S. Dunstans in the west,
and S. Anthonies. And in the next yeere,
to wit, 1394.2 the said King ordained
by Parliament,
Grammar schooles appointed by Parlia
that foure other Gram
mer-Schooles should be erected, to wit,
in the Parishes of Saint Andrew in Old
, Alhallowes the great, in Thames
Saint Peters upon Cornhill, and in
the Hospitall of Saint Thomas of Acons
in west Cheape. Since the which time,
as divers Schooles, by suppressing of
religious houses (whereof they were
members in the reigne of Henry the
, have beene decayed: so againe
have some others beene newly erected
and founded for them.
Pauls Schoole new buil
As namely, Pauls
, in place of an old ruined house,
was builded in most ample manner, and
largely endowed in the yeere 1512. by
Iohn Collet, Doctor of Divinity, and
Deane of Pauls, for 153. poore mens
children: for which there was ordained
a Master, Submaster or Vsher, and a
Free schools in Christs Ho
Againe, in the yeere 1553.
after the erection of Christs Hospitall,
in the late dissolved house of the Gray
, a great number of poore children
being taken in, a schoole was also ordai
ned there, at the Citizens charges.
Also in the yeere 1561. the Mer
chant Taylors
of London,
Free schooles founded by the Merchant Taylors.
founded one
notable free Grammar-schoole, in the
Parish of Saint Laurence Poultney, by
Candle-weeke street; Richard Hils, late
Master of that Company, having given
500. pound toward the purchase of an
House, called the Mannor of the Rose,
sometime the Duke of Buckinghams,
wherein the schoole is kept.
As for the meeting of Schoolemasters
on festivall dayes, at festivall Churches,
and the disputing of their schollers Lo
gically, &c. whereof I have before spo
ken, the same was long since disconti
nued. But the arguing of schoole-boies
about the principles of Grammar, hath
beene continued even till our time: for
I my selfe (in my youth) have yeerely
seene, on the Eve of Saint Bartholomew
the Apostle,3 the schollers of divers
Scholars disputed in S. Bar
repaire unto the
Churchyard of Saint Bartholomew the
Priory in Smithfield, where, upon a banke
boorded about under a Tree, some one
scholar hath stepped up, and there hath
apposed and answered, till he were by
some better scholler overcome and
put downe. And then the overcommer
taking the place, did like as the first:
and in the end, the best opposers and
answerers had rewards, which I obser
ved not: but it made both good schoole
masters, and also good scholars (dili
gently against such times) to prepare
themselves for the obtaining of this
I remember there repaired to these ex
ercises, (amongst others) the Masters
and scholars of the free schooles of S.
in London, of Saint Peters at
Of Schooles and Houses of Learning.
Westminster, of Saint Thomas Acons Ho
, and of Saint Anthonies Hospitall:
whereof the last named, commonly pre
sented the best Scholers, and had the
prize in those dayes.
This Priorie of Saint Bartholomew be
ing surrendred to Henry the eighth,
those disputations of Scholers in that
place surceased,
on of scholars in Christs Hospitall.
and was againe, onely
for a yeere or twaine, in the reigne of
Edward the sixth
, revived in the Cloister
of Christs Hospitall, where the best Scho
lers, (then still of S. Anthonies Schoole)
were rewarded with Bowes and Ar
rowes of silver, given to them by Sir
Martin Bowes
, Goldsmith.
Neverthelesse, howsoever the incou
ragement failed, the Scholers of Pauls,
meeting with them of Saint Anthonies,
would call them Saint Anthonies Pigs,
Anthonies Pigs.

and they againe would call the other
Pigeons of Pauls;
Pigeons of Pauls.
because many Pige
ons were bred in Pauls Church, and S.
was alwaies figured with a
Pig following him: and mindfull of the
former usage, did for a long season, dis
orderly in the open street, provoke one
another, with Salve tu quoque, placet tibi
mecum disputare? placet
. And so procee
ding from this to questions in Gram
mar, they usually fell from words to
blowes, with their satchels full of books,
many times in great heaps, that they
troubled the streets and passengers: so
that finally they were restrained with
the decay of Saint Anthonies Schoole.
Out of this Schoole have sprung di
vers famous persons, whereof although
time hath buried the names of many,
yet in mine owne remembrance may be
numbred these following: Sir Thomas
, Knight, Lord Chancellour of
England: Doctor Nicholas Heath, some
time Bishop of Rochester, after of Wor
, and lastly, Archbishop of Yorke,
and Lord Chancellour of England:
Doctor Iohn Whitgift, Bishop of Worce
, and after Archbishop of Canturbu
, &c.
Of later time,
Lecture in Chirur
in the yeere of Christ
1582. there was founded a publike Le
cture in Chirurgerie, to be read in the
Colledge of Physicians in Knight-riders
, to beginne in the yeere 1584. on
the ſixth of May
, and so to be continued
for ever twice a week, on Wednesdsy &
Friday, by the honourable Baron, Iohn,
Lord Lombley
, and the learned Richard
, Doctor in Physicke: the Rea
der whereof to be Richard Forster, Do
ctor of Physicke, during his life.
ticall Le
cture read.
about the same time,
there was also begun a Mathematicall
Lecture, to be read in a faire old Chap
pell, builded by Simon Eayre, within the
Leaden-hall; whereof a learned Citizen
borne, named Thomas Hood, was the
first Reader. But this Chappell, and
other parts of that Hall, being imploy
ed for stowage of goods, taken out of a
great Spanish Caracke, the said Lecture
ceased any more to be read, and was
then in the yeere 1588. read in the
house of Master Thomas Smith in Grasse-street, &c.
Last of all, Sir Thomas Gresham knight,
Agent to Queene Elizabeth, by his last
Will and Testament, made in the yeere
1579. gave the Royall Exchange, and
all the buildings therunto appertaining;
that is to say, the one moity to the Mai
or and Communalty of London, and
their successors, upon trust, that they
performe as shall be declared: and the
other moity to the Mercers,
Lectures to be read in London.
in like con
fidence. The Maior and Communalty
are to finde foure, to reade Lectures of
Divinity, Astronomy, Musicke and Ge
ometry, within his dwelling house in
Bishopsgate-street, and to bestowe the
summe of two hundred pound; to wit,
fifty pound apeece, &c. The Mercers
likewise are to find three Readers; that
is, in Civill Law, Physicke and Rheto
ricke, within the same dwelling house,
the summe of 150. pound, to every Rea
der 50. pound, &c. Which gift was
(since that time) confirmed by Parlia
ment, to take effect, and beganne after
the decease of the Lady Anne Gresham,
which hapned in the yeere 1596. and so
is to continue for ever.
Names of the 7. first Lecturers.
the Lectures were accor
dingly chosen, and appointed to begin
their Readings in the Moneth of Iune,
. Whose names were, Master An
thony Wotton
, for Divinity; Master Do
ctor Mathew Gwyn
, for Physick; Doctor
Henry Mountlow
, for the Civill Law;
Doctor Iohn Bull, for Musicke; Ma
ster Breerewood, for Astronomie; Ma
ster Henrie Bridges, for Geometrie;

Houses of Students in the Common Law.

and Master Caleb Willis, for Rhetorick.
These Lectures are read daily, Sundaies
excepted, in the Termetimes, by every
one upon his day, in the morning be
twixt nine and ten, in Latine: in the af
ternoon betwixt two and three, in Eng
lish; save that Doctor Bull was dispen
sed with to reade the Musicke Lecture
in English onely, and upon two severall
dayes, Thursday and Saturday in the af
ternoons, betwixt 3. and 4. of the clock.
The Readers of the seven Liberall
Sciences at Gresham Colledge, Iune 27.
. were these following:
First, Master Richard Holdsworth, Rea
der of Divinity, on Munday.
Doctor Eaton, Reader of Civill Law,
on Tuesday.
Doctor Winston, Reader of Physicke,
on Saturday.
Master Iohn Taverner, Reader of Mu
sicke, on Saturday.
Master Henry Gilibrand, Reader of A
stronomy, on Wednesday.
Master Iohn Greaves, Reader of Geo
metry, on Thursday.
And Master Edward Wilkinson, Rea
der of Rhetoricke, on Friday.


  1. I.e., Famous (JZ)
  2. Stow’s two dating methods do not correspond here. The year following the 24th year of Henry VI’s reign (i.e., his 25th year) should be between 31 August 1446 and 30 August 1447. (SM)
  3. Celebrated on 23 August. (LS)

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MLA citation

Stow, John, Anthony Munday, Anthony Munday, and Humphrey Dyson. Survey of London (1633): Schools and Houses of Learning. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 7.0, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 05 May 2022, Draft.

Chicago citation

Stow, John, Anthony Munday, Anthony Munday, and Humphrey Dyson. Survey of London (1633): Schools and Houses of Learning. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 7.0. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed May 05, 2022. Draft.

APA citation

Stow, J., Munday, A., Munday, A., & Dyson, H. 2022. Survey of London (1633): Schools and Houses of Learning. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London (Edition 7.0). Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from Draft.

RIS file (for RefMan, RefWorks, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

A1  - Stow, John
A1  - Munday, Anthony
A1  - Munday, Anthony
A1  - Dyson, Humphrey
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London (1633): Schools and Houses of Learning
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
ET  - 7.0
PY  - 2022
DA  - 2022/05/05
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  -
UR  -
ER  - 

TEI citation

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