Encode a Mayoral Pageant Book

Preface to the v.7.0 Release

MoEMl has completed the work of transcribing and encoding the Elizabethan, Jacobean, and Caroline mayoral shows. These instructions remain in our Praxis documentation as a record of how we did the work of preparing the anthology of old-spelling pageant books.


This instructional document outlines our practices for encoding diplomatic transcriptions of mayoral shows. Note about terminology: a mayoral show consists of a series of pageants staged along a pageant route. The mayoral pageant books record the pageants in the show and usually add prefatory and explanatory material. We have transcribed the pageant books. In the future, we may use the text of the pageant books for a peripatetic reconstruction of the shows.
This document is structured in four sections, representing the four main steps involved in encoding a mayoral show:
  1. Adding the structural mark-up that describes the literary codes of the text
  2. Reviewing the transcription and adding interpolations and supplied characters
  3. Adding the mark-up for MoEML dates, persons, and places
  4. Adding the bibliographical mark-up that describes the printed book
Note that these instructions presuppose that you have a diplomatic transcription of the pageant book that you will copy and paste into your XML file. They also presuppose the prior creation of an XML file that conforms with MoEML’s simple document structure, with a valid TEI header, title statement, publication statement, source description, and responsibility statements. The following instructions pertain to the encoding of the material in the <text> element.
All examples come from Metropolis Coronata (METR1.xml) unless otherwise noted.

Pass 1: Structural Mark-Up

The aim of your first pass through a mayoral pageant book is to add mark-up to identify what Jerome McGann calls the literary codes of the work. These codes include the content divisions in a work (title page, dedicatory epistle, introduction, books, chapters, sections, tables, indices, colophon), the basic organizational blocks within those divisions (paragraphs, stanzas, lines), and illustrations. Generally speaking, the text of a mayoral pageant book can be encoded with the following template:
      <!-- Insert title page here. -->
    <div type="dedicatoryEpistle">
      <!-- Insert dedicatory epistle here, if applicable. -->
    <!-- Insert text of pageant book here. -->
    <!-- Insert back matter here, if applicable. -->

Front Matter

Tag the front matter of the pageant book using the <front> element. The front matter of a mayoral pageant will normally include both a title page and a dedicatory epistle. If there are other parts of a particular pageant book that seem to belong in the <front> element, consult with the Project Director or Assistant Project Director.

Title Page

Tag the title page of a mayoral pageant using the <titlePage> element. The title page normally includes a title, figure(s), and document imprint.
The basic template is as follows, with detailed explanations below:
    <titlePart type="main">Insert Main Title Here</titlePart>
    <titlePart type="sub">Insert Subtitle Here</titlePart>
    <titlePart type="alt">Insert Alternate Title Here</titlePart>
    <titlePart type="desc">Insert Title Description</titlePart>
  <byline> Insert byline from the title page that acknowledges the <docAuthor>Author’s Name</docAuthor>. </byline>
    <figDesc> Description of the title page figure (if any), as supplied by Project Director or Assistant Project Director (Mayoral Shows). </figDesc>
  <docImprint> Insert imprint from the titlepage that describes the <pubPlace>place of publication</pubPlace>, <publisher>publisher or printer</publisher>, and <docDate>document date</docDate>. </docImprint>
Tag the mayoral pageant book title using the <docTitle> element. The titles of early modern books are usually long. We therefore parse the title and use the <titlePart> element with @type to break down the parts of the title. In addition to the main title, a title page often offers a subtitle, an alternate title, and a description—usually but not always in that order. First, copy the complete title of the mayoral pageant book into the <docTitle> element and then tag the components as follows, changing the order if/as necessary. Note that <docTitle> is a block element, which means that there is automatically a line break before and after the contents of the element when it is displayed. <titlePart> is an inline element, which means that there are no automatic line breaks before or after this element. You must therefore add a self-terminating <lb> element between and within <titlePart> elements to indicate where line breaks occur on the printed page.
Main Title
The main title of a mayoral pageant book is tagged using the <titlePart> element with an attribute of @type and a value of "main".
<titlePart type="main"> METROPOLIS<lb/> CORONATA </titlePart>,
If the mayoral pageant has a subtitle, tag it using the <titlePart> element with an attribute of @type and a value of "sub".
<titlePart type="sub"> THE TRIVMPHES OF<lb/> Ancient Drapery </titlePart>:
Alternate Title
If the mayoral pageant has an alternate title, tag it using the <titlePart> element with an attribute of @type and a value of "alt".
<titlePart type="alt"> OR,<lb/>
  <lb/> Rich Cloathing of England, in a ſe<lb type="hyphenInWord"/> cond Yeeres performance</titlePart>.
If the mayoral pageant includes a description of the book or performance details, tag it using the <titlePart> element with an attribute of @type and a value of "desc".
<titlePart type="desc"> In Honour of the aduancement of Sir Iohn<lb/> Iolles, Knight, to the high Office of Lord<lb/> Maior of London, and taking his Oath<lb/> for the ſame authoritie, on Monday,<lb/> being the 30. day of October.<lb/> 1615.<lb/>
  <lb/> Performed in heartie affection to him,<lb/> bountifull charges of his worthy Brethren the truely<lb/> Honourable Society of Drapers,the firſt that re<lb type="hyphenInWord"/> ceiued ſuch Dignitie in this Citie. </titlePart>
The byline in the pageant books is usually a line or two of text that begins with Devised and written by Gap in transcription. Reason: Editorial omission for reasons of length or relevance. Use only in quotations in born-digital documents.[…] or something similar. Tag this text using the <byline> element. Note that the author’s names or initials should be tagged using the <docAuthor> element within the <byline> text string. Do not include commas that might follow the author’s name or initials within the <docAuthor> tag. However, do include any periods in an author’s initials inside the tag.
<byline> Deuiſed, and written by <docAuthor>A.M.</docAuthor> Citizen and Draper<lb/> of London. </byline>
There is often a woodblock figure, a ruled line, and/or a printer’s ornament between the byline and the imprint on early modern title pages. Tag any figures using the <figure> element. Put a comment and ask the Assistant Project Director to add a description of the figure for you. This description will be tagged using the <figDesc> element.
    <figDesc>Horizontal rule</figDesc>
    <figDesc>Printer’s ornament</figDesc>
    <figDesc> Horizontal rule </figDesc>
Document Imprint
The imprint normally appears at the bottom of the title page, and gives information about publisher and/or printer and date and place of publication. Tag the document imprint using the <docImprint> element. Note that certain phrases of the imprint must be assigned unique tags within the <docImprint> text string.
<docImprint> Printed at <pubPlace>London</pubPlace>,by <publisher>George Purſlowe</publisher>. <docDate>1615</docDate>. </docImprint>
Place of Publication
Tag the place of publication using the <pubPlace> element. Include within this element only the name of the place, which will normally be London. Note that London is a toponym that we will tag in a later pass.
Tag the publisher using the <publisher> element. Include within this element only the name of the printer or publisher. Pageant books were not normally for sale, so most title pages include only a printer’s name. Use the <respStmt> in the <teiHeader> to make finer distinctions between publisher, printer, and bookseller.
Document Date
The document date contains the date of the pageant, as given (usually) on a title page. Tag this date using the <docDate> element.

Dedicatory Epistle

Many mayoral pageants include an epistle dedicatory, usually addressed to the new mayor. There is no element for this part of the text. Use the <div> element with a @type value of "dedicatoryEpistle", a MoEML custom value, to tag the dedicatory epistle. Note that each component of the dedicatory epistle should be uniquely tagged within the <div> element.
Here is a basic template, with an example below:
<div type="dedicatoryEpistle">
  <salute> Insert salutation here. </salute>
  <p> Insert content of dedication, inside paragraph elements if in prose. </p>
    <l> Insert content of dedication here, inside line group and line elements if in verse. </l>
  <signed> Insert closing salutation from <name>the Signatory</name>. </signed>
The dedicatory epistle of TROI1.xml serves as an example:
<div type="dedicatoryEpistle">
  <salute> To the Deſeruer of all thoſe Honors,<lb/> which the Cuſtomary Rites of this Day,<lb/> And the generall Loue of this City beſtow vpon<lb/> him; Sir Iohn Svvinerton, Knight, Lord<lb/> Maior of the renowmed City<lb/> of London.</salute>
  <p> HONOR this day takes you by the Hand, and giues you welcomes into your New-Office of Pretorſhip. <!-- ... --> for it is no Field, vnleſſe it be Crowned with victory </p>
  <p> I preſent (Sir) vnto you, theſe labours of my Pen <!-- ... --> My wiſhes being (as euer they haue bene) to meete with any Obiect, whoſe reflexion may preſent to your Eyes, Loue and Duty, In which </p>
  <signed> I ſtand Bounden<lb/>
    <lb/> To your Lordſhip.<lb/>
    <lb/> Thomas Dekker </signed>
Opening Salutation
Tag the opening salutation using the <salute> element. Usually, the salutation is a paragraph of text hailing the dedicatee. Do not use the <p> element within the <salute> element.
The content of a dedicatory epistle may be either prose or verse. If the content of the dedicatory epistle is prose, use the <p> element to tag paragraphs of prose. If the text of the dedicatory epistle is verse, use the <lg> element for the group of lines, with the <l> element wrapped around each line.
Closing Salutation
Tag the text of the closing salutation using the <signed> element. Within the closing salutation, you must tag the name of the signatory using the <name> tag.

Body Content

Most of the pageant book content belongs in the <body> element. Use <div> elements with custom @type values to name the parts of the text by their function. To describe the structure of the text (the linguistic codes, in Jerome McGann’s term), add a MoEML custom value to the <div> element. Janelle Jenstad is working on an ontology of custom values to describe the parts of a mayoral show. Research assistants will not have to decide on these custom values themselves; the Project Director or Assistant Project Director will always supply them.
In addition to <div> elements, all text within the <body> element should be properly encoded using TEI tags. Groups of prose should be tagged using the <p> element. Verse should be tagged using <lg> element for the group of lines, with the <l> element wrapped around each line. In certain cases, it may be necessary to use Cascading Style Language [CSS] to describe uniquely styled phrases or clauses.
For further instruction on matters on which the present set of instructions is silent, consult Encode a Primary Source Transcription .

Back Matter

A few pageant books include back matter. Tag back matter using the <back> element. Text that would go in a back element would include a formal thank you to the artificer.

Forme Works

Most pages in a pageant book will include text in both the head margin and bottom margin of the page. This text is often repeated on multiple pages because some of it remains in the form when the rest of the type is dumped out. We call this kind of text forme works, and it includes running titles, page numbers, signature numbers, and catchwords. Tag this content using the <fw> element with @type and @style attributes assigned to unique values for running titles, signatures, and catchwords. The mayoral pageant books usually do not include page numbers. Note that forme works text must be transcribed and checked for each page on which it is found. Do not assume it will be the same on every page.

Running Titles

Most mayoral pageants will have running titles atop each page of textual content. Tag each running title using the <fw> element and a @type attribute with a value of "header". Add also a @style attribute with CSS values to indicate where the running title appears; for example, a @style attribute with a value of "text-align: center" indicates that the running title is centered. Note that you are not indicating how we want the transcription to be rendered; you are describing how it appears in the primary source that you are transcribing. You might think of your styling as descriptive CSS rather than prescriptive CSS.
<fw type="header" style="text-align: center;"> Metropolis Coronata. </fw>


Most mayoral pageants will also have signatures in the forme works at the bottom of the recto side of some leaves (usually the first three leaves in a gathering of four. Tag each signature using the <fw> element and a @type attribute with a value of "signature". You are transcribing the signature exactly as it appears in the source, not extrapolating a signature for citation purposes. For example, the first leaf in the B gathering is usually signed B. (For citation purposes, we would extrapolate the information B1r if we were quoting text found on the recto side of that leaf.) In most instances, you will also want to include a @style attribute with a value of "text-align: center" so that the signature will be placed in the centre of the footer.
<fw type="signature" style="text-align: center;"> A 3 </fw>


Most mayoral pageants will also have catchwords in the forme works at the bottom of each book page. A catchword anticipates the first word of the following page. Tag each catchword using the <fw> element and a @type attribute with a value of "catchword". In most instances, you will also want to include a @style attribute with a value of "text-align: right" so that the catchword will be placed in the right-hand corner of the footer.
<fw type="catchword" style="text-align: right;"> euer- </fw>

Pass 2: Interpolations and Supplied Characters

Once you have finished encoding all the structural elements of the pageant book, check the transcription, make corrections, and try to transcribe the characters and words that have been left out by the EEBO transcribers (using the <supplied> element and the @resp and @reason attributes). See MoEML’s guide to encoding interpolations and supplied characters for more information.

Pass 3: Encoding MoEML Dates, Names, and Toponyms

Do a third encoding pass in which you mark up all the features that add MoEML functionality to our texts, such as dates, toponyms, and names of historical and literary persons of early modern London. For instructions on how to encode a date, refer to MoEML’s guide to encoding dates. For instructions on how to encode toponyms and the names of historical and literary persons, refer to MoEML’s guide to tagging data in our databases.
You will likely encounter names of people who are not currently entered into MoEML’s personography database. In such cases, use the Pageant PERS 2013 Google spreadsheet (in your Google Drive if you’ve been invited to share this document)This spreadsheet has been retired. MoEML Data Manager Tye Landels was responsible for adding these names from 2013 to 2015. to request that the name and its biographical information be added to PERS1.xml. Complete workflow instructions for using this spreadsheet can be found in the Introduction to the spreadsheet and embedded within comments throughout the spreadsheet.
You may infrequently encounter names of locations that have not been previously added to our document structure. In such cases, send the name of the location in an email to Tye Landels who will create an .xml file for the location and assign it an @xml:id.

Pass 4: Bibliographic Markup

In most cases, the Assistant Project Director, Kim McLean-Fiander, will take responsibility for describing the idiosyncratic text styling of the particular witness you are transcribing. She, or someone working with her, will do a fourth encoding pass to mark up the bibliographic elements of the book as a physical object. See MoEML’s guide to encoding bibliographic codes for instructions and a suggested workflow.

Pass 5: Linking to Page Images

TEI <pb> elements are used to mark page-beginnings in primary source documents, and where digital surrogates (page-images) are available, we provide links for users to access them. There are two distinct locations in which page-images may be found: in an external repository such as ProQuest, and on an HCMC server. These examples show how to link to each:
<pb facs="https://hcmc.uvic.ca/~london/images/shows/1612/chapin/Dekker_Troia_1612_Chapin_01.jpg" n="A1r" xml:id="TROI1_sig_A1r"/>
This example shows a link to a 1612 witness held in the Chapin repository, where the graphic resides on a TEI server; the actual path to the file is https://hcmc.uvic.ca/~london/images/shows/1612/chapin/Dekker_Troia_1612_Chapin_02.jpg, but using the molshows prefix, we need only provide the year, the repository, and the file name (without extension) in the @facs element.
Where no page-images are available at UVic, we may point to an external source:
<pb facs="https://search.proquest.com/eebo/docview/2240903837/pageLevelImage/?imgSeq=13" n="D1r" xml:id="TROI1_sig_D1r"/>
Here we point to a ProQuest URL, using the two distinct components of the ProQuest URL system, the document identifier (2240903837) and the page number (13).

Cite this page

MLA citation

Jenstad, Janelle. Encode a Mayoral Pageant Book. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 7.0, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 05 May 2022, mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/encode_mayoral.htm.

Chicago citation

Jenstad, Janelle. Encode a Mayoral Pageant Book. The Map of Early Modern London, Edition 7.0. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed May 05, 2022. mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/encode_mayoral.htm.

APA citation

Jenstad, J. 2022. Encode a Mayoral Pageant Book. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London (Edition 7.0). Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/editions/7.0/encode_mayoral.htm.

RIS file (for RefMan, RefWorks, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

A1  - Jenstad, Janelle
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Encode a Mayoral Pageant Book
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
ET  - 7.0
PY  - 2022
DA  - 2022/05/05
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/encode_mayoral.htm
UR  - https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/xml/standalone/encode_mayoral.xml
ER  - 

TEI citation

<bibl type="mla"><author><name ref="#JENS1"><surname>Jenstad</surname>, <forename>Janelle</forename></name></author>. <title level="a">Encode a Mayoral Pageant Book</title>. <title level="m">The Map of Early Modern London</title>, Edition <edition>7.0</edition>, edited by <editor><name ref="#JENS1"><forename>Janelle</forename> <surname>Jenstad</surname></name></editor>, <publisher>U of Victoria</publisher>, <date when="2022-05-05">05 May 2022</date>, <ref target="https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/encode_mayoral.htm">mapoflondon.uvic.ca/edition/7.0/encode_mayoral.htm</ref>.</bibl>