Geocode MoEML Locations

roseList documents mentioning Geocode MoEML Locations

Basics of GIS Locations

Any place on the surface of the earth can be located in terms of three coordinates: latitude, longitude, and elevation (height above sea level). In most of our work, we are concerned with only the first two, latitude and longitude, because we don’t (currently) envisage any rendering or data processing that would make use of elevation.
Traditionally, latitude and longitude were expressed in degrees, like this:
51°30'49.25"N
 0° 5'58.42"W
These are the coordinates of St. Paul’s Cathedral. Notice that the longitude coordinate starts with zero. St. Paul’s is very close to Greenwich, through which the zero line of longitude, the prime meridian, runs.
In modern GIS systems, latitude and longitude are expressed in decimal numbers, which look like this:
51.513557
-0.098369
You can see that these are the same basic numbers—latitude measured as distance north or south from the equator, longitude measured as distance east or west from the prime meridian—but they’re expressed in a form that enables computers to do math with them more easily.
Coordinates like this are usually comma-separated, like this:
51.513557,-0.098369
and if elevation is also included, it comes last, like this:
51.513557,-0.098369,0

Resources for Finding Geo-coordinates

At the moment, historical geo-coordinates are not nearly as readily available as modern-day geo-coordinates. Generally speaking, those who wish to work with historical geographic data are expected to infer geo-coordinates from their own research. We can infer the geo-coordinates of early modern locations from the geo-coordinates of modern administrative boundaries, sites, and structures. Despite the Great Fire of 1666, subsequent rebuilding, Victorian expansion, and the massive destruction from air raids during the second World War, London’s street layout, administrative boundaries, and property lines have been remarkably stable. Changes to administrative boundaries are well documented, which means we can work backwards from modern boundary maps if necessary. Sometimes building plans and street surveys survive (such as Ralph Treswell’s property surveys; see Schofield). Archaeological finds in London are geo-referenced, which gives us corroborating evidence for some locations (especially the footprint of structures now lost, such as theatres). The following is a list of web resources that provide geo-coordinates for some locations in early modern London:
  • London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre Online Catalogue (LAARC)
    LAARC is a database of site records from archaeological digs in London. Each site record has been assigned geo-coordinates that correspond with the point where historical evidence of the location was discovered by archaeologists. Site records are searchable via the website’s home page. Note that even though it is possible to search by street name, LAARC provides point-based geo-coordinates for archaeological finds under modern streets, not line-based geo-coordinates for the early modern streets themselves. LAARC usefully lists all the scholarly articles and monographs about a particular dig, from which we can derive further information.
  • Shakespearean London Theatres (ShaLT)
    ShaLT maps all the early modern London theatres and provides resources, maps, and suggested walking tours. Each location (exclusively playhouses and related locations) has been assigned geo-coordinates that define where the location existed in Shakespeare’s London (defined as 1570s to 1642). Locations are indexed on the locations page. We have now added all of the ShaLT coordinates to our playhouse location files.
  • GeoNames
    GeoNames is a global database of geo-coordinates that contains over 100 modern-day locations in the City of London. Locations are searchable by toponym at the website’s home page and visually via the website’s map widget. Note that GeoNames is a modern-day gazetteer. Geo-coordinates for a modern-day location may not perfectly correspond with the location’s early modern predecessor.
  • Locating London’s Past
    Locating London’s Past is a GIS interface that links various seventeenth- and eighteenth-century datasets with a georectified version of John Rocque’s Survey of London, Westminster, and Southwark, 1746. Geo-coordinates are not visible to the user. However, Tim Hitchock (one of the project directors) has kindly supplied MoEML with the project’s .KMZ files that contain geo-coordinates for streets and parishes. MoEML team members may ask Janelle Jenstad for access to these files, which you can open and search in oXygen.

Manually Find Geo-coordinates

In many cases, you will be unable to find geo-coordinates for a location using the resources listed in the previous section. When this happens, you must use your own research on the location to infer its location on a modern-day, Google map of London. The following sections describe how to extract geo-coordinates manually for user-selected points, lines, and polygons using Vertexer—a Google Maps markup tool developed by Greg Newton at HCMC.

Introduction to Vertexer

Vertexer is an open-source web application that allows users to draw points, lines, and polygons onto a Google Maps widget with map, satellite, and terrain views. It may be accessed via the following url: http://hcmc.uvic.ca/people/greg/maps/vertexer/?la=51.51&lo=-0.1&z=15&t=roadmap. The preceding url uses bookmarks to preset the application to zoom in and centre on the City of London. You may navigate the map by dragging it with the white hand cursor () or using the search field in the top-left corner of the screen. You may switch modes between a traditional map view and satelite view of an area using the drop down menu in the top-left corner.

Define Points in Vertexer

A point consists of two geo-coordinates, a latitudinal and a longitudinal coordinate, separated by a comma. We use points to infer the approximate location of buildings and other topographical features that no longer exist in present-day London. To extract geo-coordinates for a point in Vertexer, select the point marker ( from the toolbar in the top-right corner). Click on the map to produce geo-coordinates for a point (i.e., the point where you click). Geo-coordinates will appear in a pop-up. These coordinates may be copied to your clipboard and pasted into the TEI document for the coordinates’ corresponding location.
For example, suppose that I want to extract geo-coordinates for St. Olave, Silver Street (STOL4.xml). There is a present-day monument at the southeast corner of London Wall and Noble Street that marks where the church once stood. By referencing this monument, I can easily place a point marker on the former location of St. Olave, Silver Street in Vertexer:
Notice that the geo-coordinates for the point marker (and, by association, St. Olave, Silver Street) appear in the bottom half of the screen. They are as follows: 51.517297,-0.095127.

Define Lines in Vertexer

A line consists of at least two sets of latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates. Regardless of how many sets of geo-coordinates make up a line, the first and last set of coordinates will always be different. We use lines to trace present-day streets and other linear features that have early modern equivalents (e.g., Carter Lane) as well as to infer, whenever possible, the approximate paths of early modern streets and other linear features that no longer exist. To extract geo-coordinates for a line in Vertexer, select the line marker () from the toolbar in the top-right corner. Click on the map to produce the starting point in the line (i.e., the point where you click will be the starting point); click on the map again to produce another point in the line. Repeat this process until you have connected a series of points in the appropriate linear form. The geo-coordinates for your line will appear in a pop-up. These coordinates may be copied to your clipboard and pasted into the TEI document for the coordinates’ corresponding location.
For example, suppose that I want to extract geo-coordinates for Carter Lane (CART1.xml). Carter Lane still exists in present-day London, so I can easily trace the present-day Carter Lane in Vertexer:
Notice that the geo-coordinates for the line (and, by association, Carter Lane) appear in the bottom half of the screen. They are as follows:
51.513361,-0.102725 51.513313,-0.102248 51.513291,-0.101983 51.513289,-0.101963 51.513283,-0.101892 51.513272,-0.101785 51.513258,-0.101681 51.51325,-0.101636 51.513148,-0.101284 51.513137,-0.101239 51.513126,-0.101197 51.513099,-0.101073 51.513041,-0.100525 51.51296,-0.100191 51.512924,-0.09914 51.512888,-0.098421 51.512883,-0.098297 51.512794,-0.09733 51.512796,-0.097315 51.512808,-0.097288 51.512822,-0.097272 51.51283,-0.097262 51.512852,-0.097245 51.51295,-0.097186 51.513033,-0.097205
Notice also that the various points along the line are marked with a white circle. After you have finished drawing a line, you may edit its shape and geo-coordinates by clicking on and moving these point markers. You may also right-click on any point marker to delete it.

Define Polygons in Vertexer

A polygon consists of at least three sets of latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates. Regardless of how many sets of geo-coordinates make up a polygon, the first and last set of coordinates will always be the same. We use polygons to trace present-day buildings and other polygonal features that have early modern equivalents (e.g., St. Paul’s Cathedral, Goldsmiths’ Hall). We also use polygons to trace early modern administrative boundaries of wards, parishes, neighbourhoods, etc. To extract geo-coordinates for a polygon in Vertexer, select the polygon marker () from the toolbar in the top-right corner. Click on the map to produce the starting point of the polygon (i.e., the point where you click will be the starting point); click on the map again to produce another point of the polygon. Repeat this process until you have connected a series of points in the appropriate linear form. Make sure that the first and last points of the polygon are the same. The geo-coordinates for your polygon will appear in a pop-up. These coordinates may be copied to your clipboard and pasted into the TEI document for the coordinates’ corresponding location.
For example, suppose that I want to extract geo-coordinates for St. Paul’s Cathedral (STPA2.xml). St. Paul’s still exists in present-day London, so I can easily trace the present-day St. Paul’s in Vertexer:
Notice that the geo-coordinates for the polygon (and, by association, St. Paul’s) appear in the bottom half of the screen. They are as follows:
51.513412,-0.099565 51.513425,-0.099074 51.513375,-0.098548 51.513327,-0.098267 51.513405,-0.097975 51.513615,-0.097346 51.513829,-0.097254 51.514032,-0.097449 51.514108,-0.098133 51.514195,-0.098399 51.514088,-0.098687 51.513987,-0.099116 51.51393,-0.099637 51.513412,-0.099565
Notice also that the various points in the polygon are marked with a white circle. After you have finished drawing a polygon, you may edit its shape and geo-coordinates by clicking on and moving these point markers. You may also right-click on any point marker to delete it.
Do toggle between the map view and the satellite view when drawing a polygon. Features of a building or site can be clearer in one view than they are in the other. For example, the map view of St. Paul’s Cathedral does not show clearly that the north and south semi-circular features are gardens. The satellite view helps one determine the shape of the structure, even though it is easier to trace the structure on the map view.

Edit a Pre-existing Line or Polygon

It is possible to edit a complex line or polygon even once it has been encoded inside an existing locations document. To edit a pre-existing line or polygon, copy and paste its geo coordinates (tagged using the <geo> element) into the New Shape field in the bottom-centre of the interface. Next, click on the Add shape to map button. The line or polygon will then appear on the map, where you may edit it by moving and/or deleting its white point markers. You can then copy and paste the shape’s edited geo coordinates back into the existing locations document.

Use Google Earth Instead of Vertexer

For instructions on how to perform the same tasks using Google Earth, see Martin Holmes’s now-deprecated manual for using Google Earth to encode GIS coordinates of locations. The document was deprecated because Vertexer is much easier to use than Google Earth.

Encode Geo-coordinates in a Location Document

Once you have retrieved geo-coordinates for a location, the next step is to encode them in the location’s TEI file. Each TEI file for a location will have a <div> in its <body> that looks something like this:
<div type="placeInfo">
<head>St. Paul’s Cathedral</head>
<listPlace>
<place corresp="#C4_STPA2">
<placeName>St. Paul’s Cathedral</placeName>
<location>
<geo><!-- Geographical coordinates will go here when available. --> </geo>
</location>
</place>
</listPlace>
</div>
The comment indicates where the coordinates should go. Paste the coordinates inside the <geo> tags, separating the latitudinal coordinates from the longitudinal coordinates with a comma (,) and separating latitude-longitude coordinate pairs from each other with a space ( ). It is vital that you DO NOT put a space after the comma between latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates. For example, a geographical point should be encoded thus:
<geo>51.513557,-0.098369</geo>
A geographical line should be encoded thus:
<geo>51.513412487853,-0.09956518738909835 51.51342490411496,-0.09907352353264927 51.51337515331529,-0.09854794927132422 51.51332657086279,-0.09826662956696325 51.5134050406195,-0.09797451920697323</geo>
A geographical polygon should be encoded thus:
<geo>51.513412487853,-0.09956518738909835 51.51342490411496,-0.09907352353264927 51.51337515331529,-0.09854794927132422 51.51332657086279,-0.09826662956696325 51.5134050406195,-0.09797451920697323 51.51361478678208,-0.09734579556372211 51.51382896340971,-0.09725399622560914 51.51403178212471,-0.09744927183520874 51.51410842163026,-0.09813277781772305 51.51419510959087,-0.09839870581199643 51.51408838446699,-0.09868742601890415 51.51398706060057,-0.09911584437698109 51.51393048079962,-0.09963724273184871 51.513412487853,-0.09956518738909835</geo>

Research Transparency

It is important that we remain transparent about the source of the geographic data that we use who has acquired it on behalf of MoEML. To this end, MoEML encodes source information and responsibility information for each set of geo-coordinates (demarcated by the <location> tag) in a document.

Encode Source Information for Geo-coordinates

To encode source information for a set of geo-coordinates, add a @source attribute to the <location> tag containing the coordinates. The value field associated with the @source attribute should contain
  1. a mol:uri that points to the source’s @xml:id as it appears in BIBL1.xml (if the source has not yet been added to BIBL1.xml, add it)
  2. the http:// address from which the geo-coordinates derive (if applicable)
Separate the first and second value components with a single space character ( ). If you used Vertexer to extract geo-coordinates, cite Vertexer (VERT3) as the source. Do not include an http:// address in the @source value field when Vertexer is the source.
The following example presents the geo-coordinates for Silver Street as sourced from Shakespearean London Theatres:
<location source="mol:SHLT1 http://shalt.dmu.ac.uk/locations/silver-street-near-st-giles-church.html">
<geo>51.51733845,-0.09495696</geo>
</location>

Encode Responsibility Information for Geo-coordinates

To encode responsibility information for a set of geo-coordinates, add a @resp attribute to the <location> tag containing the coordinates. The value field associated with the @resp attribute should contain a mol:uri that points to the @xml:id for the contributor who found the geo-coordinates. The following example presents the geo-coordinates for Silver Street as sourced by Kim McLean-Fiander:
<location resp="mol:MCFI1">
<geo>51.51733845,-0.09495696</geo>
</location>
Note that the @resp attribute must occur in addition to the @source attribute (as previously described). Therefore, a set of geo-coordinates for Silver Street sourced by Kim McLean-Fiander from Shakespearean London Theatres should be encoded thus:
<location source="mol:SHLT1 http://shalt.dmu.ac.uk/locations/silver-street-near-st-giles-church.html" resp="mol:MCFI1">
<geo>51.51733845,-0.09495696</geo>
</location>
We also encode responsibility information for geo-coordinates in responsibility statements in the <teiHeader>. Each person who contributed geo-coordinates to a document should have his/her own responsibility statement (tagged using the <respStmt> element) crediting him/her as a Geographic Information Specialist for the document. Use the molRelator code gis in the @ref value field associated with the <resp> element. The following responsibility statement serves as an example:
<respStmt>
<resp ref="molresp:gis">Geographic Information Specialist<date when="2014"/></resp>
<name ref="mol:JENS1">Janelle Jenstad</name>
</respStmt>

Add Dates to Geo-coordinates

Whenever possible, it is best practice to define a date range for geo-coordinates (i.e., identify from when to when the location corresponded with the given geo-coordinates). Refer to the source of the geo-coordinates as well secondary material about the geocoded location to obtain relevant date information. To define the date range for a set of geo-coordinates, add @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, and @datingMethod attributes to the <location> element containing the geo-coordinates. For example,
<div type="placeInfo">
<head>Blackfriars Theatre</head>
<listPlace>
<place corresp="#C4_BLAC6">
<placeName>Blackfriars Theatre</placeName>
<location source="mol:SHLT1 http://shalt.dmu.ac.uk/locations/first-blackfriars-1576-84.html" resp="mol:JENS1" notBefore="1576" notAfter="1584" datingMethod="mol:gregorian" calendar="mol:gregorian">
<geo>51.51274001,-0.10293054</geo>
</location>            
</place>
</listPlace>
</div>
Occasionally, you will encounter locations that existed in both early modern London and present-day London. With a few exceptions, such locations will have moved — slightly or significantly — from their early modern site. For example, St. Paul’s Cathedral and Goldsmiths’ Hall have been rebuilt on the same sites but not with the same building footprint. Most sites within the walls were rebuilt after the Great Fire of 1666. The surviving streets might be truncated, blocked at one or both ends, or bisected. The few surviving alleys and lanes have been truncated. We therefore supply today’s date (i.e., the date you extracted the geo-coordinates) in lieu of a date range for the present-day geo-coordinates. To define a present-day date for a set of geo-coordinates, add @when and @datingMethod attributes to the "location" element containing the geo-coordinates. For example,
<div type="placeInfo">
<head>St. Paul’s Cathedral</head>
<listPlace>
<place corresp="#C4_STPA2">
 
<placeName>St. Paul’s Cathedral</placeName>
<location source="mol:GOOG1" resp="mol:HOLM3" when="2014-07-10">
<geo>51.513412487853,-0.09956518738909835 51.51342490411496,-0.09907352353264927 51.51337515331529,-0.09854794927132422 51.51332657086279,-0.09826662956696325 51.5134050406195,-0.09797451920697323 51.51361478678208,-0.09734579556372211 51.51382896340971,-0.09725399622560914 51.51403178212471,-0.09744927183520874 51.51410842163026,-0.09813277781772305 51.51419510959087,-0.09839870581199643 51.51408838446699,-0.09868742601890415 51.51398706060057,-0.09911584437698109 51.51393048079962,-0.09963724273184871 51.513412487853,-0.09956518738909835</geo>
</location>
</place>
</listPlace>
</div>
For further information, see MoEML’s documentation for encoding dates.

Encode Multiple Geo-coordinates for a Single Location

Locations in the MoEML document collection cannot always be represented using a single set of geo-coordinates. There are many reasons why an encoder may choose to provide two or more sets of geo-coordinates for a single location. For instance,
  • A location’s geo-coordinates may be discontinuous
  • A location’s geo-coordinates may change over time (due to moving, rebuilding, etc.)
  • Different sources may provide different geo-coordinates for the location
Multiple geo-coordinates can be encoded in a location document using one of two methods:
  • Method One: add two or more <geo> elements inside the document’s <location> element
  • Method Two: add two or more <location> elements inside the document’s <place> element, containing one or more <geo> element(s)
Use Method One if a location is discontinuous or if its geography is interrupted in any way. For example, Abchurch Lane (ABCH1) is discontinuous because there is a jog where it encounters King William Street. The encoder therefore supplies two <geo> elements, each containing one part of Abchurch Lane’s two-part geography, inside a single <location> element nested inside the document’s <place> and <listPlace> elements. For example,
<listPlace>
<place>
                      
<location source="mol:GOOG1" resp="mol:HOLM3">
<geo>51.51209690109405,-0.08773945715900788 51.51235891239416,-0.08749603624695183 51.51262667133795,-0.08728524229368352</geo>
<geo>51.51125619286238,-0.0883807249651244 51.51159518259738,-0.08812560207860246 51.51195508204328,-0.08782160420778685</geo>
</location>

</place>
</listPlace>
Use Method Two if a location has moved over time or if different sources provide different geo-coordinates for the location. For example, Shakespearean London Theatres and The Museum of London Archaeological Archive both provide slightly different geo-coordinates for Silver Street. To represent both sets of data concurrently, the encoder supplies two <location> elements (with different @source values), each containing one or more <geo> element(s), nested inside the document’s <place> and <listPlace> elements. For example,
<listPlace>
<place>
<placeName>Silver Street</placeName>
                        
<location source="mol:SHLT1 http://shalt.dmu.ac.uk/locations/silver-street-near-st-giles-church.html" resp="mol:MCFI1" notBefore-custom="1602" notAfter-custom="1616" datingMethod="mol:julian" calendar="mol:julian">
<geo>51.51733845,-0.09495696</geo>
</location>
                        
<location source="mol:LAAR1 http://archive.museumoflondon.org.uk/laarc/catalogue/siteinfo.asp?id=3446" resp="mol:LAND2">
<geo>51.5169453,-0.0950358</geo>
</location>
                        
</place>
</listPlace>
Note that you may encounter situations or complexities when working with geographic information that are not covered in this tutorial. In such instances, use your discretion to decide which method of encoding is best suited to the geographic information you are working with and flag the issue for discussion with Janelle and/or at a team meeting. Complexities are an opportunity to refine our practices. As a general rule, use Method One (multiple <geo> tags) if a location is discontinuous or composed of two or more parts but is generally regarded as a single geographic event in space and time; alternatively, use Method Two (multiple <location> tags) if a location is disputed or if it consists of multiple geographic events in space and time. Remember that these two methods are not mutually exclusive: discontinuous geographic coordinates may be included in one or more of the multiple geographic events that make up a disputed, rebuilt, or moved location. Abchurch Lane (ABCH1) serves as an example:
<listPlace>
<place corresp="#C6_ABCH1">
<placeName>Abchurch Lane</placeName>
                          
<location source="mol:GOOG1" resp="mol:HOLM3">         
<geo>51.51209690109405,-0.08773945715900788 51.51235891239416,-0.08749603624695183 51.51262667133795,-0.08728524229368352</geo>
<geo>51.51125619286238,-0.0883807249651244 51.51159518259738,-0.08812560207860246 51.51195508204328,-0.08782160420778685</geo>                 
</location>
                          
<location source="mol:LAAR1 http://archive.museumoflondon.org.uk/laarc/catalogue/siteinfo.asp?id=4926" resp="mol:JENS1">
<geo>51.5123897,-0.0875297</geo>
</location>
                          
</place>
</listPlace>

Encode Geo-coordinates in Non-location Documents

In certain instances, you may wish to add geo-coordinates to a non-location document. For example, the encyclopedia article on the Revels Office (REVE2.xml) contains location information and geo-coordinates for the various sites of the Revels Office between 1578 and 1642:
<div type="placeInfo">
<head>Revels Office</head>
<listPlace>
<place>
<placeName>Revels Office</placeName>
<location source="mol:SHLT1 http://shalt.dmu.ac.uk/locations/st-johns-priory-buildings-clerkenwell-1578-1607.html" resp="mol:TAKE1" notBefore="1578" notAfter="1607" datingMethod="mol:gregorian">
<geo>51.52380693,-0.10294478</geo>
</location>
<location source="mol:SHLT1 http://shalt.dmu.ac.uk/locations/whitefriars-by-the-playhouse-1608-11.html" resp="mol:TAKE1" notBefore="1608" notAfter="1611" datingMethod="mol:gregorian">
<geo>51.5131856,-0.10803541</geo>
</location>
<location source="mol:SHLT1 http://shalt.dmu.ac.uk/locations/peters-hill-near-college-of-arms-1612-30.html" resp="mol:TAKE1" notBefore="1612" notAfter="1630" datingMethod="mol:gregorian">
<geo>51.5123877,-0.09833655</geo>
</location>
<location source="mol:SHLT1 http://shalt.dmu.ac.uk/locations/near-st-mary-le-bow-church-cheapside-1630-42.html" resp="mol:TAKE1" notBefore="1630" notAfter="1642">
<geo>51.51384995,-0.09355685</geo>
</location>
</place>
</listPlace>
</div>
Seeing as non-location documents do not by default contain a <div> element with a @type value of "placeInfo", you will need to add such a <div> to the top of the non-location document. Nest <head>, <listPlace>, <place>, <placeName>, <location>, and <geo> elements inside the new <div> element thus:
<div type="placeInfo">
  
<head>[Name of Place]</head>
  
<listPlace>
    
<place>
      
<placeName>[Name of Place]</placeName>
      
<location>
        
<geo><!-- [Insert geo-coordinates.] --> </geo>
      
</location>
    
</place>
  
</listPlace>
  
</div>
Follow the instructions in the previous section to add content to the above template and, in doing so, encode geo-coordinates in a non-location document.

References

Last modification: 2016-05-27 14:37:29 -0700 (Fri, 27 May 2016) (tlandels)
Export to RefWorks
RIS file (for RefMan, EndNote etc.)

MLA citation:

Landels-Gruenewald, Tye, Martin Holmes, and Janelle Jenstad. “Geocode MoEML Locations.” The Map of Early Modern London. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Web. 23 November 2017. <http://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/geo.htm>.

Chicago citation:

Landels-Gruenewald, Tye, Martin Holmes, and Janelle Jenstad. n.d. “Geocode MoEML Locations.” The Map of Early Modern London. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed November 23, 2017. http://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/geo.htm.

APA citation:

Landels-Gruenewald T., M. Holmes, & J. Jenstad. (n.d.). Geocode MoEML Locations. In J. Jenstad (Ed.), The Map of Early Modern London. Retrieved November 23, 2017, from http://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/geo.htm

TEI citation:

<bibl> <author><persName><surname>Landels-Gruenewald</surname>, <forename>Tye</forename></persName></author>, <author><persName><forename>Martin</forename> <surname>Holmes</surname></persName></author>, & <author><persName><forename>Janelle</forename> <surname>Jenstad</surname></persName></author>. (<date>n.d.</date>). <title level="a">Geocode MoEML Locations</title>. In <editor><persName><forename>J.</forename> <surname>Jenstad</surname></persName></editor> (Ed.), <title level="m">The Map of Early Modern London</title>. Retrieved <date when="2017-11-23">November 23, 2017</date>, from <ref target="http://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/geo.htm">http://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/geo.htm</ref> </bibl>