The Queen’s Majesty’s Passage
-  The receiving of the Quenes maiestie
-  Formal Greeting to the Queen at Fenchurch
-  Presentation of the First Pageant at Gracious Street
-  Presentation of Second Pageant at Cornhill
-  Presentation of Third Pageant at Soper’s Lane End
-  Presentation of Fourth Pageant at the Little Conduit in Cheapeside
-  Child’s Oration at St. Paul’s Churchyard
-  Musical Greeting in Ludgate
-  Presentations of the Fifth Pageant at the Conduit in Fleet Street
-  Child’s Oration at St. Dunstan’s Church
-  Presentation of Gogmagog and Corineus at Temple Bar
-  Formal Farewell to the Queen
Although the form of the Royal Entry has been modified since its beginnings in the thirteenth century, its social function survives in English royal culture and politics today. The same love for entertainment and spectacle that draws a crowd toward parades today also drew crowds to a historical event rich in pageantry and cultural significance. The purpose of the entry was to deliver the soon-to-be crowned king or queen through London, the day prior to his or her coronation. An intimidating procession of footmen and councillors, along with their future regent, marched through the streets of London from the Tower in the East to Westminster Abbey. The entry allowed the common people to view their future ruler and to welcome him or her with gifts and pageants.
This was a staged event that took months of planning and preparation, and required the efforts of many planners and craftsmen. The aldermen paid for the costly materials and labour. The final project not only reflected the wealth of the livery companies, but also revealed their admiration and devotion to their regent. The presentations for the entry were not simple productions. The pageants and route followed a consistent pattern that had been established for hundreds of years.
Beginning at the Tower, the future king or queen was welcomed by the Lord Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor then escorted the future regent through the gates of London, proceeding through the district of Cheapside, until the arrival at Westminster. The following day, the coronation took place at Westminster, and the festivities would continue.
 The receiving of the Quenes maiestie
Vpon Saturday, which was the xiiii. day of Januarie in the yere of our Lord God .1558. about .ii. of the clocke at after noone, the most noble, and christian princesse, our moste dradde soueraigne Ladie Elizabeth by the grace of god Queen of England, Fraunce & Ireland, defendour of the faythe &c marched from the towre to passe through the citie of London towarde Westminster, richely furnished, & most honorablye accompanied, as wel with gentlemen, Barons, and other the nobilitie of thys realme, as also with a notable trayne of goodly and beawtiful ladies, richely appoynted. And entring the citie was of the people receiued merueylous entierly, as appeared by thassemblie, prayers, wisshes, welcomminges, cryes, teder woordes, and all other signes, whiche argue a wonderfull earnest loue of most obedient subiectes towarde theyr soueraygne. And on thother syde her grace by holding up her handes, and merie countenaunce to such as stoode farre of, and most tender and getle language to those that stode nigh to her grace, did declare her selfe nolesse thankefullye to receiue her peoples good wille, than they louingly offredit unto her. To all that wished her grace wel, she gaue heartie thankes, and to suche as bade God save her grace, she sayd agayne god saue them all, and thanked them with all her heart. So that on eyther syde ther was nothing but gladnes, nothing but prayer, nothing but comfort. The Quenes maiestie reioysed merueylouslye to see, ye, so excedingly shewed toward her grace, which all good princes have ever desyred, I meane so earnest loue of subiectes, so euidently declared euen to her graces own persone being caried in the middest of them. The people again wer wonderfully rauished with the louing answers and gestures of their princesse, like to the which they had before tryed at first coming to the towre from Hatfield. This her graces louing behauiour preconceiued in the peoples heades upon these consideracions was then throughly confirmed, and in dede emplanted a woonderfull hope in them touching her woorthie gouernment in the rest of her reygne. For in all her passage she did not only shew her most gracious loue toward the people in generall, but also priuately if the baser personages had either offred her grace any flowres or such like as a significacion of their good will, or moued to her any sute, she most gently, to the common reioysing of all the lookers on, and priuate comfort of ye partie, staid her chariot, and heard theyr requestes. So that if a man should say well, he could not better tearme the citie of London that time, than a stage wherin was shewed the wonderfull spectacle, of a noble hearted princesse toward her most louing people, & the peoples excading comfort in beholding so worthy a soueraign, & hearing so princelike a voice which could not but haue set thenemie on fyre, since ye vertue is in ye enemie alway commended, much more could not but enflame her naturall, obedient, and most louing people, whose weale leaneth onely uppon her grace, and her gouernement.
 Formal Greeting to the Queen at Fenchurch
Thus therfore the queenes maiestie passed from the Towre tyll she came to Fanchurche, the people on eche syde ioyoussye beholding the viewe of so gracious a Ladie their quene, and her grace no lesse gladlye notyng and obseruying thesame. Here unto Fanchurch was erected a scaffold richely furnished, wheron stode a noyes of instrumentes, and a child in costly apparel, which was appointed to welcome the quenes maiestie in ye hole cities behalfe. Against which place when her grace came, of her own wille she commaunded the chariot to be staide, & ye the noyes might be appeased till the child had uttered his welcomming oration, which he spake in English meter as here foloweth.
O pereles soueraygne quene, behold what this thy town
Hath the presented with at thy fyrst entraunce her:
Behold with how riche hope she ledeth thee to thy crown
Beholde with what two gyftes she comforteth thy chere.
Ther first is blessing tonges, which many a welcome say
Which pray thou maist do wel, which praise the to ye skie
Which wish to the long lyfe, which blesse this happy day
Which to thy kingdome heapes, all ye in tonges can lye.
The second is true hertes, which loue thee from their roote
Whose sute is tryumphe now, and ruleth all the game.
Which faithfulnes haue wone, & al untruthe driuen out,
Which skip for ioy, when as they heare thy happy name.
Welcome therefore O quene, as much as hert can thinke,
Welcome agayn O quene, as much as song can tell:
Welcome to ioyous tonges, & hertes that wil not shrink;
God she preserve we praye, & withe thee euer well.
At which wordes of ye last line the hole peple gaue a great shout, wishing with one assent as the childe had said. And ye quenes maiestie thanked most hartely both ye citie for this her gentle receiuing at ye first, & also ye peple for confirming ye same. Here was noted in the Quenes maiesties countenance, during ye time that the childe spake, besides a perpetual attentiuenes in her face, a meruelous change in looke, as the childes wordes touched either her person or the peoples tonges and hertes. So that she with reioysing visage did euidently declare that the woordes tooke no lesse place in her mynde, than they were moste heartelye pronounced by the chylde, as from all the heartes of her most heartie citizeins. The same verses wer fastened vp in a table vpon the scaffolde, and the latine therof likewise in latine verses in another table as hereafter enseweth.
Vrbs tua quæ ingressu dederit tibi munera primo,
O Regina parem non habitura, vide.
Ad diadema tuum, to spe quam diuite mittat,
Quæ duo lætitæ det tibi dona, vide.
Munus habes primu, linguas bona multa precates,
Quæ te quum laudant, tum pia vota sonant,
Fœlicemque diem hunc dicunt, tibi secula longa
Optant, et quicquid denique lingua potest.
Altera dona feres, vera, et tui amantia corda,
Quorum gens ludum iam regit una tuum:
In quibus est infracta fides, falsumque perosa,
Quæque tuo audito nomine læta salit
Grata venis igitur, quantum cor concipit vllum,
Quantum lingua potest dicere, grata venis.
Cordibus infractis, linguisque per omnia lætis
Grata venis: saluam to velis esse deus.
 Presentation of the First Pageant at Gracious Street
Now when the childe had pronounced his oration, and the Quenes highnes so thankefully had receiued it, she marched forwarde towarde gracious streate, where at the upper ende, before the sygne of the Egle, the citie had erected a gorgeous & sumptuous arke as here foloweth.
A stage was made whiche extended from thone syde of the streate to thother, rychelye vawted with batlementes conteining three portes, and ouer the middlemost was auaunced .iii. seueral stages in degrees. Upon the lowest stage was made one seate royall, wherin wer placed two personages represeting kynge Henrie the seuenth and Elizabeth hys wyfe daughter of king Edward the fourth, eyther of these two princes sitting vnder one cloth of estate in their seates, no otherwyse diuyded, but that thone of them which was king Henrie the seuenth proceding out of the house of Lancastre, was enclosed in a read rose, and thother which was Queen Elizabeth being heire to the house of Yorke, enclosed with a whyte rose, eche of them royallie crowned, and decently apparailled as apperteineth to princes, with Sceptours in their handes & one vawt surmounting their heades, wherin aptlie wer placed two tables, eche conteining ye tytle of those two princes. And these personages were so set, ye the one of them ioyned handes with thother, with ye ring of matrimonie perceiued on ye finger. Out of the which two roses sprang two braunches gathered into one, which wer directed vpward to the second stage or degree, wherin was placed one, representing the valiant & noble prynce king Henrie theight which sprong out of the former stocke, crowned with a crowne imperiall, & by him sate one representing ye right worthie ladie quene Anne, wife to the said king Henrie theyght, & mother to our most soueraign ladie quene Elizabeth that now is, both apparelled with Sceptours & diademes, and other furniture due to the state of a king & quene & .ii. tables surmounting their heades wherein were written their names & tytles. From their seate also proceaded vpwardes one braunche directed to the third and vppermost stage or degree, wherin lykewyse was planted a seat royall, in the whiche was sette one representynge the Quenes most dradde soueraygne Ladie, crowned and apparelled as thother prynces were. Oute of the forepart of thys pageaunt was made a standyng for a chylde, whiche at the quenes maiesties comyng declared unto her ye hole meaning of the said pageaunt. The two sydes of the same were filled with loude noyses of musicke. And all emptie places thereof were furnished with sentences concerning unitie. And the hole pageant garnished with redde roses and white and in the forefront of the same pageant in a faire wreathe was written the name, and title of the same, which was The vniting of the two houses of Lancastre and Yorke. This pageant was grounded vpon the Queenes maiesties name. For like as the long warre betwene the two houses of Yorke and Lancastre then ended, when Elizabeth doughter to Edwarde the fourthe matched in mariage wyth Henry the seventhe heyre to the howse of Launcaster : so synce that the Queenes maiesties name was Elizabeth, and forsomuch as she is the onelye heire of Henrie the eyght, which came of bothe the houses as the knitting vp of concorde, it was deuised that like as Elizabeth was the first occasion of concorde, so she another Elizabeth might maintaine the same among her subiectes, so that vnitie was the ende wherat the whole deuise shotte, as the Queenes maiesties names moued the firste grounde. This pageant now against the Quenes maiesties comming was addressed with children representing the forenamed personages, with all furniture dew vnto the setting forthe of such a matter well ment, as the argument declared, costly and sumptuouslye set forthe, as the beholders can beare witnes. Now the Queenes maiestye drewe nere unto the sayde pageant, and forsomuch as the noyse was great by reason of the prease of people, so that she could skace heare the childe which did interprete the saide pageant, and her chariot was passed so farre forward that she could not well view the personages representing the kinges and Queenes abouenamed: she required to haue the matter opened vnto her, which so was, and euery personage appointed, and what they signified, with the ende of vnitie & ground of her name, according as is before expressed. For the sight wherof, her grace caused her chariot to be remoued back, & yet hardley coulde she see, because the children were set somewhat with the farthest in. But after that her grace ahd understode the meaning therof, she thanked the citie, praised the fairenes of the worke, and promised, that she would doe her whole endeuour for the continuall preseruacion of concorde, as the pageant did emporte. The childe appointed in the standing abouenamed to open the meaning of the said pageant, spake these wordes unto her grace.
The two princes that sit vnder one cloth of state,
The man in the red rose, the woman in the white:
By ryng of mariage as man and wife vnite.
Both heires to both their bloodes, to Lancastre the king
The Queene to Yorke, in one the two houses did knit,
Of whom as heire to both, Henry the eyght did spring,
In whose seat his true heire thou quene Elsabeth dost sit.
Therefore as ciuill warre, and shede of blood did cease
When these two houses were vnited into one
So now that iarre shall stint, and quietnes encrease,
We trust, O noble Queene, thou wilt be cause alone.
The which also were written in laten verses, and bothe drawen in two tables uppon the forefront of the sayde pageant as hereafter foloweth.
Hii quos iungit idem solium quos annulus idem:
Hæc albente nitens, ille rubente Rosa:
Septimus Henricus Rex, Regina Elizabetha,
Scilicet Hæredes gentis vterque suæ:
Hæc Eboracenis, Lancastrius ille dederunt
Connubio, e geminis quo foret vna domus
Excipit hos hæres Henricus copula regum
Octauus, magni Regis imago potens
Regibus hinc succedis auis, Regique parenti
Patris iusta hæres Elizabetha tui.
Sentences placed therin concerning unite.
Nullæ concordes animos vires domant.
Qui iuncti terrent, deiuncti timent.
Discordes animi soluunt, concordes ligant.
Augentur parua pace, magna bello cadunt.
Coniunctæ manus fortius tollunt onus.
Regno pro menibus æneis ciuium concordia.
Que diu pngnant diutius lugent.
Dissidentes principes sulditorum lues.
Princeps ad pacem natus non ad arma datur
Filia concordiæ copia, neptis quies.
Dissentiens respublica hostibus placet.
Qui idem tenent, diutius tenent.
Regnum diuisum facile dissoluitur.
Ciuitas concors armis frustra tentatur.
Omnium gentium consensus firmat fidem. &.
These verses and other pretie sentences were drawen in voide places of this pageant, all tending to one ende that quietnes might be mainteined, and all dissention displaced, and that by the Queenes maiestie, heire to agrement, and agreing in name with her, which tofore had ioyned those houses, which had ben thoccasion of much debate and ciuill warre within this realme, as maye apeare to soche, as will search cronicles, but be not to be touched in this treatise onely declaring her graces passage through the citie, and what prouisiou the citie made therefore. And ere the Quenes maiestie came within hearing of this pageant, she sent certaine as also at all the other pageants to require the people to be silent for her maiestie was disposed to heare all that shold be said unto her.
 Presentation of Second Pageant at Cornhill
When the Queenes maiestie had hearde the childes oracion, and understode the meaning of the pageant at large, she marched forward toward Cornehill, alway receiued with like reioising of the people, & there as her grace passed by the conduit which was curiouslye trimmed against that time with riche banners adourned, and a noyse of loude instrumentes vpon the top therof, she espied the seconde pageant, and because shee feared for the peoples noyse, that she should not here the child which did expounde thesame, she enquired what that pageant was ere that she came to it. And there vnderstode, that there was a childe representing her maiesties person, placed in a seate of gouernement, supported by certaiue vertues, which suppressed other vices under their seate, and so forthe, as in the description of the said pageant shall herafter apeare.
This pageant standing in the nether ende of Cornehill was exteuded from thoneside of the strete to the other, and in the same pageant was deuised three gates all open, an ouer the middle parte therof was erected one chaire a seate royall with clothe of estate to the same apperteyning wherein was placed a childe representing the Queenes highnesse with consideracion had for place conuenient for a table which conteined her name and title. And in a comelie wreathe artificially and wel deuised with perfite sight and vnderstanding to the people. In the front of the same pageant was written the name and title therof, which is The seat of worthie gouernance, which seate was made in such artificiall maner, as to the apperance of the lookers on, the foreparte semed to have no staie, and therfore of force was stayed by liuely personages, which personages were in numbre foure, standing and staieng the forefront of the same seat royal, eche hauing his face to the Quene and people, wherof euery one had a table to expresse their effectes, which are uertues, namelie Pure religion, Loue of subiectes, VVisedome and Iustice, which did treade their contrarie vices under their feete, that is to witte, Pure religion, did treade uppon Superstition, and Ignoraunce, Loue of subiectes, did treade upon Rebellion and Insolencie, VVisdome did treade upon follie and vaine glorie, Iustice did treade upon Adulacion and Briberie. Eche of these personages according to their proper names and properties, had not onlie their names in plaine and perfit writing set vpon their breastes easelie to be read of all, but also euery of them was aptelie and properlie apparelled, so that his apparell and name did agre to express the same person, that in title he represented. Thys part of the pageant was thus appointed and furnished. The two sides ouer the two side portes had in them placed a noyse of instrumentes, which immediatlie, after the childes speache gaue an heauenly melodie. Upon the top or uppermost part of ye said pageant, stoode the armes of England roially portratured with ye proper beastes to vpholde the same. One representing the Quenes highnes sate in this seate crowned with an Imperiall crowne, and before her seate, was a conuenient place appointed for one childe which did interpret and applie the said pageant as hereafter shalbe declared. Euery voide place was furnished with proper sentences commending the seate supported by uertues, and defacing the vices, to the vtter extirpation of rebellion, and to euerlasting continuance of quietnes and peace. The Queenes maiestie approching nighe vnto thys pageant thus bewtified and furnished in all pointes, caused her charyot to be drawen nyghe thereunto, that her grace myght heare the childes oration whych was thys.
While that religion true, shall ignorance suppresse
And with her weightie foote, breake superstitions heade
While loue of subiectes, shall rebellion distresse
And with zeale to the prince, insolencie down treade.
While iustice can flattering tonges & briberie deface
while follie & vaine glory to wisedome yelde their handes
So long shal gouernment, not swarve from her right race
But wrong decayeth still, and rightwisenes vp standes.
Now all thy subiectes hertes, O prince of perles fame
Do trust these vertues shall maintein up thy throne,
And vice be kept down still, the wicked put to shame
that good with good may ioy, and naught with naught may mone.
Which verses were painted upon the right side of the same pageant, and the latin therof on the left side in another table, which were these.
Quæ subnixa alte solio regina superbo est,
Effigies sanctæ principis alma refert,
Quam ciuilis amor fulcit, sapientia firmat,
Iustica illustrat, Relligioque beat.
Vana superstitio et crassæ ignorantia frontis
Pressæ sub pura relligine iacent.
Regis amor domat effroenes, animosque rebelles
Iustus adulantes, Domiuorosque terit.
Cum regit imperium sapiens, sine luce sedebunt
Stultitia, atque hurus numen inanis honor.
Beside these verses there were placed in euery voide rome of the pageant both in English and laten such sentences as aduanced the seate of gouernaunce vpholden by vertue. The grounde of this pageant, was that like as by vertues (which doe aboundantly appere in her grace) the Queenes maiestie was established in the seate of gouernement: so she should syt fast in thesame so long as she embraced vertue and helde vice vnder foote. For if vice once gotte vp the head, it woulde put the seate of gouernement in perill of falling. The Queenes maiestie when she had heard the childe and understode the pageant at full, gaue the citie also thankes there, and most graciouslie promised her good endeuour for the maintenance of the sayde vertues, and suppression of vyces, and so marched on till she came against the great conduit in chepe, which was bewtifyed with pictures and sentences accordingly agaynst her graces coming thither.
 Presentation of Third Pageant at Soper’s Lane End
Against Soper lanes ende was extended from thone syde of the streate to thother, a pageant which had three gates all open. Ouer the middlemoste wherof wer erected three seuerail stages, whereon sate eight children as hereafter foloweth. On the vppermost one childe, on the middle three, on the lowest ,iiii, eche hauing the proper name of the blessing, that they did represent, writen in a table and placed aboue their heades. In the forefront of this pageant before the children which did represent the blessings, was a conuenient standing cast out for a chylde to stande, which did expound the said pageaunt unto the quenes maiestie, as was done in thother tofore. Euerie of these children wer appointed & apparelled according vnto the blessing which he did represent. And on the forepart of the said pageant was written in fayre letters the name of the said pageant in this maner folowing.
The eight beatitudes expressed in the .v. chapter of the gospel of S.Mathew, applyed to our soueraigne Ladie Quene Elizabeth.
Ouer the two side portes was placed a noyes of instrumentes. And all voide places in the pageant wer furnished with prety sayinges, commending and touching ye meaning of the said pageant, which was the promises & blessinges of almightie god made to his people. Before ye the quenes highnes came vnto this pageant, she required ye matter somewhat to be opened vnto her, ye her grace might the better vnderstand, what should afterward by the child be sayd vnto her. Which so was, ye the citie had there erected the pageant which .viii. children, representing theyght blessinges touched in the .v. Chapter of S.Mathew. Wherof, euery one vpon iust consideracions was applyed unto her highnes, and that the people therby put her grace in mind, ye as her good doinges before had geuen iust occasion, why that these blessinges might fall vpon her, ye so if grace did continue in her goodnes as she had entred, she shoulde hope for the fruit of these promises due vnto them, ye doe exercise themselues in the blessinges, whiche her grace heard merueilous graciously, and required that the chariot myght be remoued towardes the pageaunt, that she might perceyue the chyldes woordes, which were these, the Quenes maiestie geuing most attentiue eare, and requiring that the peoples noyse might be stayde.
Thou hast been .viii. times blest, o quene of worthy fame
By mekenes of thy spirite, when care did thee besette
By mourning in thy griefe, by mildnes in thy blame
By hunger and by thyrst, and iustice couldst none gette.
By mercy shewed, not felt, by cleanes of thyne harte
By seking peace alwayes, by persecucion wrong.
Therefore trust thou in god, since he hath helpt thy smart
That as his promis is , so he will make thee strong.
When these woordes were spoken, all the people wished, that as the child had spoken, so god woulde strengthen her grace against all her aduersaries, whom ye Quenes maiestie did most gently thanke for their so louing wishe. These verses wer painted on the left syde of the said pageant, and other in laten on thother syde, which wer these.
Qui lugent hilares fient, qui mitia gestant
Pectora, multa soli iugera culta metent
Iustitiam esuriens sitiensue replebitur, ipsum.
Fas homini puro corde videre deum
Quem alterius miseret dominus miserebitur huius,
Pacificus quisquis, filius ille Dei est.
Propter iustitiam quisquis patietur habetque
Demissam mentem, cælica regna capit.
Huic hominum generi terram, mare, sidera vouit
Omnipotens, horum quisque beatus erit.
Besides these, euery uoide place in ye pageant was furnished with sentences touching the matter and ground of the said pageant. When all ye was to be said in this pageant was ended, the Quenes maiestie passed on forward in Chepesyde.
 Presentation of Fourth Pageant at the Little Conduit in Cheapeside
At the Standarde in Cheape which was dressed fayre agaynste the tyme, was placed a noyse of Trumpettes, with banners and other furniture. The Crosse lykewyse was also made fayre and well trymmed. And neare vnto thesame, vppon the porche of Saint Peters church dore, stode the waites of the citie, which did geue a pleasant noyse with theyr instrumentes as the Quenes maiestie did passe by, which on euerie syde cast her countenaunce, and wished well to all her most louing people. Sone after that her grace passed the crosse, she had espyed the pageant erected at the litle conduit in cheape, and incontinent required to know what it might signifye. And it was tolde her grace, that there was placed Tyme. Tyme up she, and Tyme hath brought me hether. And so furth the hole matter was opened to her grace as hereafter shalbe declared in the descripcion of the pageaunt. But in the openyng, when her grace vnderstoode that the Byble in Englishe shoulde be deliuered vnto her by Truth, whiche was therein represented by a childe: she thanked the citie for that gift, and sayd that she would oftentimes reade ouer that booke, commaunding sir John Parrat, one of the knightes which helde up her canapy, to goe before and to receiue the booke. But learning that it should be deliuered vnto her grace downe by a silken lace, she caused him to staye, and so passed forward till she came agaynste thaldermen in the hyghe ende of Chepe tofore the little conduite, where the companies of the citie ended, which beganne at Fanchurch, and stoode alonge the streates one by another enclosed with rayles, hanged with clothes, and themselues well apparelled with many ryche furres and theyr liuery whodes upon theyr shoulders in comely & semely maner, hauing before them sondry persones well apparelled in silkes & chaines of golde, as wyflers and garders of the said companies, beside a numbre of riche hangynges, aswell of Tapistrie, Arras, clothes of golde, silver, veluet, damaske, Sattyn, and other silkes plentifully hanged all the way as the Quenes highnes passed form the Towre through the citie. Out at the windowes & penthouses of euerie house, did hang a number of ryche and costlye banners and streamers tyll her grace came to the vpper ende of Cheape. And there, by appointment, the right worshipfull maister Randolph Cholmley, Recorder of the citie, presented to the Quenes maiestie a purse of crimosin sattin richly wrought with gold, wherin the citie gaue vnto the Quenes maiestie a thousand markes in gold, as maister Recorder did declare brieflye vnto the Quenes maiestie, whose wordes tended to this ende, that the Lord maior, hys brethren, and comminaltie of the citie, to declare their gladnes and good wille towardes the Quenes maiestie, did present her grace with that gold, desyering her grace to continue their good and gracious Quene, and not to esteme the value of the gift, but the mynd of the geuers. The Quenes maiestie with both her handes tooke the purse, and aunswered to him againe merueilous pithilie, and so pithilie that the standers by, as they embraced entierly her gracious aunswer, so they meruailed at ye cowching therof, which was in wordes truely reported these. I thanke my lord maior, his brethren, & you all. And wheras your request is that I should continue your good ladie & quene, be ye ensured, that I wil be as good vnto you, as euer quene was to her people. No wille in me can lacke, neither doe I trust shall ther lacke any power. And perswade your selues, that for the safetie and quietnes of you all, I will not spare, if nede be to spend my blood, God thanke you all. Whiche aunswere of so noble an hearted pryncesse, if it moued a meruaylous showte and reioysing, it is nothyng to be meruayled at, since both the heartines thereof was so woonderfull, and the woordes so ioyntly knytte. When her grace hadde thus aunswered the Recorder, she marched toward the little conduit, where was erected a pageaunt with square proporcion, standynge directlye before the same conduite, with battlementes accordynglye. And in the same pageaunt was aduaunced two hylles or mountaynes of conuenient heyghte. the one of them beyng on the North syde of thesame pageaunt, was made cragged, barreyn, and stonye, in the whiche was erected one tree, artificiallye made, all withered and deadde, with braunches accordinglye. And vnder thesame tree at the foote thereof, sate one in homely and rude apparell crokedlye, and in mournyng maner, hauying ouer hys headde in a table, written in Laten and Englyshe, hys name, whiche was Ruinosa Respublica. A decayed common weale. And vppon thesame withered tree were fixed certayne Tables, wherein were written proper sentences, expressing the causes of the decaye of a common weale. The other hylle on the South syde was made fayre, freshe, grene, and beawtifull, the grounde thereof full of flowres and beawtie, and on thesame was erected also one tree very freshe and fayre, vnder the whiche, stoode vprighte one freshe personage well apparaylled and appoynted, whose name also was written bothe in Englyshe and in Laten, whiche was, Respublica bene instituta. A florishyng common weale. And vppon thesame tree also, were fixed certayne Tables conteyning sentences, which expressed the causes of a flourishing common weale. In the middle betwene the sayde hylles, was made artificiallye one hollowe place or caue, with doore and locke enclosed, oute of the whiche, a lyttle before the Queenes hyghnes commynge thither, issued one personage whose name was Tyme, apparaylled as an olde man with a Sythe in his hande, hauynge wynges artificiallye made, leadinge a personage of lesser stature then himselfe, which was fynely and well apparaylled, all cladde in whyte silke, and directlye ouer her head was set her name and tytle in latin and Englyshe, Temporis filia, the daughter of Tyme. Which two so appoynted, went forwarde, toward the South syde of the pageant. And on her brest was written her propre name, whiche was Veritas. Trueth who helde a booke in her hande vpon which was written, Verbum veritatis, the woorde of trueth. And out of the South syde of the pageaunt was cast a standynge for a chylde which should enterpret thesame pageant. Against whom, when the Quenes maiestie came: he spake unto her grace these woordes.
This olde man with the sythe, old father tyme they call,
And her his daughter Truth, whiche holdeth yonder boke
Whom he out of this rocke hath brought furth to vs all
From whence this many yeres she durst not once out loke.
The ruthfull wight that sitteth vnder the barren tree,
Resembleth to vs the fourme, when common weales decay
But when they be in state tryumphant, you may see
By him in freshe attyre that sitteth vnder the baye.
Now since ye Time again his daughter truth hath brought,
We trust O worthy quene, thou wilt this truth embrace.
And since thou vnderstands the good estate and nought
We trust welth thou wilt plant, and barrennes displace.
But for to heale the sore, and cure that is not seene,
Which thing ye boke of truth doth reache in writing plain:
She doth present to thee thesame, O worthy Queene,
For that, that wordes do flye, but wryting doth remayn.
When the childe had thus ended his speache, he reached hys boke towardes the Quenes maiestie, which a little before, Trueth had let downe vnto him from the hill, which by maister Parrat was receiued, and deliuered vnto the Quene. But she as soone as she had receiued the booke, kyssed it, and with both her handes held vp thesame, and so laid it vpon her brest, with great thankes to the citie therfore. And so went forward towards Paules churchyarde. The former matter which was rehersed vnto the Queenes maiestie was written in two tables, on either side the pageant eight verses, and in the middest, these in laten.
Ille, vides falcem læua qui sustinet vncam,
Tempus is est, cui stat filia vera comes
Hanc pater exesa deductam rupe reponit
In lucem, quam non viderat ante diu
Qui sedet a læua cultu make tristi inepto
Quem duris crescens cautibus orbis obit
Nos monet effigie, qua sit respublica quando
Corruit, at contra quando beata viget.
Ille docet iuuenis forma spectandus amictu
Scitus, et æterna laurea fronde virens.
The sentences written in latin and englishe vpon both the trees, declaring the causes of both estates, were these.Causes of a ruinous common weale are these.
- Want of the feare of god.
- Blindnes of guides
- Disobedience to rulers.
- Briberie in maiestrats
- Rebellion in Subiectes.
- Vnmercifullnes in rulers.
- Ciuill disagrement.
- Vnthankfulnes in Subiectes
- Flattring of princes.
- Feare of god.
- Obedient Subiectes.
- A wise prince.
- Louers of the common weale
- Learned rulers.
- Vertue rewarded
- Obedience to officers.
- Vice chastened.
The mater of this pageant dependeth of them ye went before. For as the first declared her grace to come out of ye house of vnitie, ye second ye she is placed in ye seate of gouernment staied with vertues to the suppression of vice, and therfore in the third the eight blessinges of almighty god might well be applied vnto her: so this fourth now is, to put her grace in remembrance of the state of the common weale, which Time with Truth his doughter doth reuele, which Truth also her grace hath receiued, and therfore cannot but be merciful & careful for the good gouernment therof.
 Child’s Oration at St. Paul’s Churchyard
From thence the Quenes maiesty passed toward Paules churchyard And when she came ouer against Paules scole, a childe appointed by ye scole master therof pronounced a certein oracion in latin, & certain verses, which also wer ther written as foloweth.
la Philosophus ille diuinus Plato inter multa preclare acsapienter dicta, hoc posteris proditum reliquit, Rempub: illam, fælicissimam fore, cui princeps sophiæ studiosa, virtutibusque ornata contigerit. Quem si vere dixisse censeamus (vt quidem verissime) cur non terra Britannica plauderet? cur non populus gaudium atque lætitiam agitaret? immo, cur non hunc diem albo (quod aiunt) lapillo notaret? quo princeps talis nobis adest, qualem priores non viderunt, qualemque posteritas haud facile cernere poterit, dotibus quum animi, tum corporis vndique fæcilissima. Casti quidem corporis dotes ita apertæ sunt, vt oratione non egeant. Animi vero tot tantæque, vt ne verbis quidem exprimi possint. Haec nempe Regibus summis orta, morum atque animi nobilitate genus exuperat. Huius pectus Cristi religionis amore flagrat. Hæc gentem Britannicam virtutibus illustrabit, clipeoque iustitiæ teget. Hæc literis græcis et latinis eximia, ingenioque prepollems est. Hac imperante pietas vigebit, Anglia florebit, aurea secula redibunt. Vos igitur Angli tot commoda accepturi Elizabetham Reginam nostram celeberriman ab ipso Christo huibus regni imperio destinatam, honore debito prosequimini. Huius imperiis animo libentissimo subditiestote, vosque tali principe dignos prebete. Et quoniam pueri non viribus sed precibus officium prestare possunt, non Alumni huius scholæ ab ipso Coleto olim Templi Paulini Decano, extructæ, teneras palmas ad cælum tendentes Christum Opt: Maxi: precaturi sumus vt tuam celsitudinem annos Nestoreos summo cum honore Anglis imperitare faciat, matremque pignoribus charis beatam reddat. Amen.
Anglia nunc tandem plaudas, lætare, re sulta,
Presto iam vita est, præsidiumque tibi
En tua spes venit tua gloria, lux, decus omne
Venit iam solidam quæ tibi prestat opem.
Succuretque tuis rebus quæ pessum abiere.
Perdita quæ fuerant hæc reparare volet
Omnia florebunt, redeunt nunc aurea secla.
In melius surgent quæ cecidere bona.
Debes ergo illi totam te reddere fidam
Cuius in accessu commoda tot capies.
Salue igitur dicas, imo de pectore summo.
Elizabeth Regni non dubitanda salus,
Virgo venit, veniatque optes comitata deinceps.
Pignoribus charis, læta parens veniat
Hoc deus omnipotens ex alto donet olympo
Qui cælum & terram condidit atque regit.
Which the Queenes maiestie most attentiuely harkened vnto. And when the childe had pronounced he did kisse the oration which he had there faire written in paper, and deliuered it vnto the Quenes maiestie, which most gently receiued thesame.
 Musical Greeting in Ludgate
And when he Quenes maiestie had heard all ye was there offred to be spoken, then her grace marched toward Ludgate where she was receiued with a noyse of instrumentes, the forefront of ye gate being finelie trimmed vp against her maiesties comming. From thence by the way as she went down toward Fletebridge, one aboute her grace noted the cities charge, that there was no coast spared. Her grace answered that she did well consider thesame, and that it should be remembred. An honorable answere, worthie a noble prince, which may comfort all her subiectes, considering there can be no point of gentlenes, or obedient loue shewed towarde her grace, which she doth not most tenderlie accept, and graciously waye.
 Presentations of the Fifth Pageant at the Conduit in Fleet Street
In this maner, the people on either side reioysing, her grace went forwarde, towarde the conduite in Fleetestrete, where was the fifth and laste pageant erected in forme following. From the conduit which was bewtified with painting, vnto the Northside of the strete, was erected a stage embattelled with foure towres and in the same a square platte rising with degrees, and vpon the vppermost degree was placed a chaire, or seate roiall, and behinde the same seate in curious, artificiall maner was erected a tre of reasonable height and so farre aduaunced aboue the seate as it did well and semely shadow the same, without endomaging the sight of any part of the pageant, and the same tree was bewtified with leaues as grene as arte could deuise, being of a conuenient greatnes and conteining therupon the fruite of the date, and on the top of the same tree in a table was set the name therof which was A Palme tree, and in the aforesaid seate or chaire was placed a semelie and mete personage richlie apparelled in parliament robes, with a sceptre in her hand, as a Quene, crowned with an open crowne, whose name and title was in a table fixed ouer her head, in this sort. Debora the iudge and restorer fo the house of Israel. Iudic.4. and the other degrees on eyther side were furnished wyth .vi. personages, two representing the nobilitie, two ye clergie, and two the comminaltie. And before these personages was written a table Debora with her estates, consulting for the good gouernment of Israel. At the feete of these and the lowest part of the pageant was ordeined a conuenient rome for a childe to open the meaning of the pageant. When the Queenes maiestie drew nere vnto this pageant, and perceiued, as in the other, the childe readie to speake, her grace required silence, and commaunded her chariot to be remoued nigher, that she might plainlie heare the childe speake, which said as hereafter foloweth.
Iaben of Canaan king had long by force of armes
Opprest the Israelites, which for gods people went
But god minding at last for to redresse their harmes,
The worthy Debora as iudge among them sent.
In war she, through gods aide, did put her foes to flight,
And with the dint of sworde the bande of bondage brast.
In peace she, through gods aide, did alway mainteine right
And iudged Israell till fourty yeres were past.
A worthie president, O worthie Queene, thou hast,
A worthie woman iudge, a woman sent for staie.
And that the like to vs enoure alway thou maist
Thy louing subiectes wil with true hearts & tonges praie.
Which verses were written vpon the pageant, and the same in latin also.
Quando dei populum Canaan, rex pressit Iaben,
Mittitur a magno Debora magna deo:
Quæ populum eriperet, sanctum seruatet Iudan,
Milite quæ patrio frangeret hostis opes.
Hæc domino mandante deo lectissima fecit
Fæmina, et aduersos contudit ense viros
Hæc quater denos populum correxerat annos
Iudico, bello strenua, pace grauis.
Sic, O sic populum belloque et pace guberna,
Debora sis Anglis Elizabetha tuis.
The voide places of the pageant were filled with pretie sentences concerning the same matter. The ground of this last pageant was, ye forsomuch as the next pageant before had set before her graces eyes the florishing & desolate states of a common weale, she might by this be put in remembrance to consult for the worthie gouernment of of her people, considering god oftimes sent women nobly to rule among men, as Debora which gouerned Israell in peace the space of .xl. yeres: & that it behoueth both men & women so ruling to vse aduise of good counsell.
 Child’s Oration at St. Dunstan’s Church
When ye Queenes maiestie had passed this pageant, she marched towarde Temple barre. But as St. Dunstones church were the children of thospitall wer appointed to stande with their gouernours, her grace perceiuing a childe offred to make an oracion vnto her, staied her chariot, and did cast vp her eyes to heauen, as who shoulde saye, I here see this mercifull worke towarde the poore whom I must in the middest of my royaltie nedes remembre, and so turned her face towarde the childe, which in latin pronounced an oracion to this effecte, that after the Queenes highnes had passed through the citie and had sene so sumpteous, rich, and notable spectacles of the citiezens which delared their most hartye receyuing and ioyous welcomming of her grace into the same: thys one spectacle yet rested and remained, which was the euerlasting spectacle of mercy vnto the poore members of allmighty God, furthered by that famous and most noble prince king Henry the eyght, her graces father, erected by the citie of London, and aduaunced by the most godly vertuous and gracious prince king Edwarde the .vi. her graces dere and louing brother doubting nothing of the mercy of the Queenes most gracious clemencie by the which they may not onely be releued and helped, but also stayed and defended, & therefore incessauntly they would pray and crie vnto almighty god for the long life and raigne of her highnes with most prosperous victory against her enemies.
The childe after he had ended his oracion, kissed the paper wherin thesame was written, and reached it to the Queenes maiestie which receiued it graciouslye both with woordes & countenance, declaring her gracious mynde toward their reliefe.
 Presentation of Gogmagog and Corineus at Temple Bar
From thence her grace came to Temple barre, which was dressed finely with the two ymages of Gotmagot the Albione, and Corineus the Briton, two gyantes bigge in stature furnished accordingly, which held in their handes euen aboue ye gate, a table, wherin was writen in laten verses, theffect of al the pageantes which the citie before had erected, which verses wer these.
Ecce sub aspectu iam contemplaberis vno
O princeps populi sola columna tui.
Quicquid in immensa passim perspexeris vrbe
Qualige cepere omnes vnus hic arcus habet.
Primus te solio regni donauit auiti,
Hæres quippe tui vera parentis eras.
Suppressis vitiis, domina virtute, Secundus
Firmauit sedem regia virgo tuam.
Tertius ex omni posuit te parte beatam
Si, qua cæpisti pergere velle, velis.
Quarto quid verum, respublica lapsa quid esset
Quæ florens staret te docuere tui.
Quinto magna loco monuit te Debora, missam
Cælitus in regni gaudia longa tui.
Perge ergo regina, tuæ spes vnica gentis,
Hæc postrema vrbis suscipe vota tuæ.
Viue diu, regnaque diu, virtutibus orna
Rem patriam, et populi spem tucare tui.
Sic o sic petitur cælum Sic itur in astra
Hoc virtutis opus, cætera mortis erunt.
Which verses wer also writtne in Englishe meter in a lesse table as herafter foloweth.
Behold here in one view, thou mayst see all that plaine
O princesse to this thy people the onely staye:
What echewhere thou hast seen in this wide town, again
This one arche whatsoeuer the rest conteynd, doth say.
The first arche as true heyre vnto thy father dere,
Did set thee in the throne where thy graund father satte,
The second dyd confyrme thy seate as princesse here,
Uertues now bearyng swaye, and vices bet down flatte.
The third, if that thou wouldest goe on as thou began,
Declared thee to be blessed on euery side,
The fourth did open Trueth, and also taught thee whan
The common weale stoode well, & when it did thence slide.
The fifth as Debora declared thee to be sent
From heauen, a long comfort to vs thy subiectes all,
Therfore goe on O Queene, on whom our hope is bent,
And take with thee this wishe of thy towne as finall,
Liue long, and as long raigne, adourning thy countrie,
With vertues, and maintain thy peoples hope of thee,
For thus, thus heauen is won, thus must ye pearce ye skye,
This is by vertue wrought, all other must nedes dye.
 Formal Farewell to the Queen
On the South side was appointed by the citie a noyse of singing children, & one child richely attyred as a Poet, which gaue the quenes maiestie her farewel in ye name of the hole citie, by these wordes.
As at thine entraunce first, O prince of high renowne,
Thou wast presented with tonges & heartes for thy fayre,
So now sith thou must nedes depart out of this towne
This citie sendeth thee firme hope and earnest praier.,
For all men hope in thee, that all vertues shall reygne,
For all men hope that thou, none errour will support,
For all men hope that thou will trueth restore agayne,
And mend that is amisse, to all good mennes comfort.
And for this hope they pray, thou mayst continue long,
Our Quene amongst vs here, all uice for to supplant,
And for this hope they pray ye God may make the strong
As by his grace puissant, so in his trueth constant.
Farewell O worthy Quene, and as our hope is sure,
That into errours place, thou will now trueth restore,
So trust we ye thou will our soueraigne Quene endure,
And louing Lady stand, from hencefurth euermore.
While these wordes were in saieng, and certeins wishes therein repeted for maintenaunce of truthe and rooting out of errour she now and then helde vp her handes to heauen warde and willed the people to say. Amen.
UUhen the child had ended, she sayd, be ye well assured, I will stande your good quene. At which saieng her grace departed forth through temple barre towarde UUestminster with no less shooting and crieng of the people, then she entered the citie with a noyse of ordinance which the towre shot of at her graces entraunce first into towre streat.
The childes saieng was also in latin verses written in a table which was hanged up there.
O Regina potens, quum primam vrbem ingredereris
Dona tibi, linguas fidaque corda dedit
Discedenti etiam tibi nunc duo munera mittit.
Omina plena spei, votaque plena precum.
Quippe tuis spes est, in te quod prouida virtus
Rexerit, errori nec locus vllus erit.
Quippe tuis spes est, quod tu verum omne reduces
Solatura bonas, dum mala tollis, opes.
Hac spe freti orant, diuina vt gratia fortem,
Et veræ fidei te velit esse basin.
Iam Regina vale, et sicut nos spes tenet vna,
Quod vero inducto, perditus error erit.
Sic quoque speramus quod eris Regina benigna
Nobis per regni tempora longa tui.
Thus the Queenes hyghnesse passed through the citie, whiche without anye forreyne persone, of it selfe beautifyed it selfe, and receiued her grace at all places as hath been before mencioned, with most tender obedience and loue, due to so gracious a quene and soueraigne ladie. And her grace likewise of her syde in all her graces passage shewed her selfe generalye an ymage of a woorthie Ladie and Gouernour, but priuately these especiall poyntes were noted in her grace, as signes of a most prince lyke courage, whereby her louing subiectes maye ground a sure hope for the rest of her gracious doinges herafter.
Certain notes of the quenes maiesties great mercie, clemencie, and wisdome vsed in this passage.
About the nether ende of Cornehill towarde Cheape, one of the knightes about her grace had espyed an auncient citizen, which wepte, and turned his head backe, and therwith said this gentleman, yonder is an Alderman (for so he tearmed hym) which wepeth & turneth his face backeward. Now may it be interpreted that he so doth, for sorowe, or for gladnes. The quenes maiestie hearde him, and said, I warrant you it is for gladnes. A gracious interpretation of a noble courage, which wold turne the doutefull to the best. And yet it was well known that as her grace did confirme thesame, the parties cheare was moued for very pure gladnes for the sight of her maiesties person, at ye beholding wherof, he tooke such comfort that with teares he expressed thesame.
In Cheapeside her grace smyled, and being therof demaunded the cause, answered, for that she had heard one say, Remember old king Henry theight. A naturall child, which at the verie remembraunce of her fathers name toke so great a ioy, ye all men may well thinke, that as she reioysed at his name whom this realme doth holde of so woorthie memorie, so in her doinges she will resemble thesame.
When the cities charge withoute parcialitie, and onely the citie was mencioned vnto her grace, she sayd it shoulde not be forgotten. Which saying might moue al natural Englishmen hertely to shew due obedience and entiernes to their, so good a Queene which will in no point forget anie parcell of duetie louingly shewed vnto her.
The answere which her grace made vnto maister Recorder of London, as the hearers know it to be true, and with melting heartes herd the same: so may the reader therof conceiue what kinde of stomacke and courage pronounced thesame. What more famous thing doe we reade in auncient histories fo olde time, then that mightye princes haue gentlie receiued presentes offered them by base and low personages. If that be to be wondered at (as it is passingly) let me se any writer that in any one princes life is able to recount so manie presidentes of this vertue, as her grace shewed in ye one passage through the citie. How many nosegaies did her grace receiue at poore womens handes & how ofttimess staied she her chariot, when she saw any simple body offer to speake to her grace. A branch of Rosemarie giuen to her grace with a supplication by a poore woman about fleetebridge, was sene in her chariot till her grace came to westminster, not without the meruaillous wondring of such as knew the presenter and noted the Queenes most gracious receiuing and keping the same.
What hope the poore and nedie may looke for at her graces hande, she as in all her iourney continuallie, so her harkening to the poore children of Christes hospitall with eyes cast vp into heauen did fullie declare, as that neither the welthier estate could stande without consideracion had to the pouertie, neither the pouertie be dewlie considered, vnles they were remembred as commended to vs by goddes owne mouth.
As at her first enterance she as it were declared, her selfe prepared to passe through a citie that most entierlie loued her, so she at her last departing, as it were bownd her selfe by promes to continue good ladie and gouernor vnto that citie which by outward declaracion did open their loue, to their so louing and noble prince in such wise, as she herselfe wonderyd therat.
But because princes be set in their seate by gods appointing and therfore they must first and chieflie tender the glory of him, from whom their glorie issueth, it is to be noted in her grace, that forsomuch as god hath so wonderfullie placed her in the seate of gouernment ouer this realme, she in all doinges doth shew her selfe most mindfull of his goodnes and mercie shewed vnto her, & amongest all other two principall sygnes thereof were noted in this passage. First in the Towre, where her grace before she entred her chariot, lifted vp her eyes to heauen and sayd.
O Lord, almighty and euerlasting God, I geue thee most heartie thankes that thou hast been so mercifull vnto me as to spare me to beholde this ioyfull daye. And I acknowledge that thou hast dealt as wonderfully & as mercifully with me, as thou didst wyth thy true and faithfull seruant Daniel thy prophete whom thou deliueredst out of the denne from the crueltie of the gredy and rageing Lyons: euen so was I ouerwhelmed, and only by thee deliuered. To thee therfore only be thankes, honor, & prayse, for ever. Amen.
The second was the receiuing of ye Bible at the little conduit in cheape. For when her grace had learned that the bible in Englishe should there be offered, she thanked the citie therefore, promysed the reading therof most diligentlie, and incontinent commaunded, that it should be brought. At the receit wherof, how reuerently did she with both her handes take it, kiss it, & lay it vpon her brest to the great comfort of the lookers on. God will vndoubtedly preserue so worthy a prince, which at hys honor so reuerently taketh her beginning. For this saying is true, and written in the boke of Truth. He that first seketh the kingdome of God, shall haue all other thinges cast vnto him.
Now therfore all English hertes, and her naturall people must nedes praise Gods mercie which hath sent them so woorthie a prince, and pray for her graces long continuance amongest vs.
This project is supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.
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